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By 2020, 30% reduction of GHG emissions compared to 1990 levels. (NDC)

Participates in the EU ETS (Norway Links with EU ETS). 2013 cap for emissions from fixed installations is set at 2,084,301,856 allowances as part of Phase 3. Between 2013-2020, this cap decreases each year by 1.74%, amounting to a reduction of 38,264,246 allowances each year (EU Emissions Cap). Auctioning is the default method for allocating allowances and 300 million allowances set aside in the New Entrants Reserve to fund the deployment of innovative renewable energy technologies and carbon capture and storage through the NER 300 programme (Phase 3). In 2021, the pace of annual reductions in allowances increases to 2.2% as of 2021 as part of Phase 4. Phase 4 will also continue the free allocation of allowances as well as include low-carbon funding mechanisms (Phase 4).

Aims to encourage investments in highly efficient horizontal technologies, with a current focus on industrial pumps, alongside action to promote the in-house use of waste heat. Program covers investments to replace existing equipment as well as investments in new equipment and targets SMEs and large companies. A maximum of €30,000 is available for individual measures per project, or a maximum of €150,000 for measures to improve entire systems. The latter are eligible for funding if proof is furnished that these measures will increase the system’s energy performance by at least 25% and if an energy conservation plan to this effect is submitted. Guidelines for Funding Highly Efficient Horizontal Technologies

An initiative that focuses its activities on three key parts of the value chain: the production, selling and buying / using of products. The initiative offers value for consumers, dealers, and manufacturers: Hosts a product database to allow consumers to find the most energy-efficient equipment. Helps dealers to advertise the added value of energy-efficient products and to promote sales of top runner products. Provides access to a network where retailers can engage in dialogue on sales activities, and customer information, and can work together on designing workshops for retailers. Provides support for producers who are developing innovative products, for example via the open innovation platform. National Top Runner Initiative

By 2020, set up 500 energy efficiency networks, a joint goal between the Federal Government and business associations and organizations. Energy Efficiency Networks Initiative

Introduces energy-efficiency networks, an initiative between the Federal government and business associations and organizations designed to encourage companies throughout Germany to form voluntary energy efficiency networks and commit to targets. Energy Efficiency Networks Initiative

Provides funding for companies that are trying out, enhancing, and marketing digital solutions for reducing electricity, gas, heat and cooling consumption by providing these solutions to final consumers. Up to €1 million in funding is available per project. Energy-Savings Meter Pilot Program

Provides funding for measures (the installation of highly-efficient heating and hot water circulation pumps, the use of hydraulic balancing and others) that require a small investment and creates incentives for consumers to improve their existing heating systems. Between 2018 and the end of 2020, €470 million will be available each year. Program for Funding Heating Optimization via Highly Efficiency Pumps and Hydraulic Balancing

Low-interest financing programs, made available by KfW, the German government-owned development bank, available for improving the energy efficiency of production processes and equipment. KfW Energy Efficiency Programs

Funds specialized contracting consultancy for municipalities and SMEs until through 2018. Promoting Energy Performance Contracting (EPC)

Provides funding for the modernization of heating and ventilation systems in homes. 165 million euros in funding is available and provided in the form of low-interest loans and grants. Energy Efficiency Incentive Program (APEE)

Provides funding for energy-efficient construction and retrofitting of buildings. Funding takes the form of grants or low-interest loans that may be combined with loan-repayment grants. As a rule, financial incentives rise with the level of energy efficiency achieved. Funding is available for residential, municipal and social service buildings, and commercial buildings. CO2 Building Modernization Program

Provides financial incentives for companies to implement innovative pilot projects that improve the energy efficiency of their industrial, commercial or residential customers with digital technologies. Various energy-saving measures are eligible, including: behavioral or usage changes, changed processes and operations, facilities maintenance or investment in equipment replacement. Up to 1 million euros can be distributed per applicant with a funding intensity of 25% up to 50%, half payable on the basis of proven project costs and the other half on the basis of proven saved kWh. Projects that are already (partially) financed by other federal grants are ineligible. Pilot Program Einsparzähler

Sets energy performance requirements for new and existing buildings in the instance of major renovation and regulates the issuing and display of energy performance certificates. Specifies that as of January 2016, the primary energy consumption of new-builds will have to be reduced by an additional 25%. Requires decommissioning of oil and gas boilers that provide central heating in apartment buildings that were installed before January 1985 or which have been in service for more than 30 years. Fines for non-compliance have been increased to €50,000. Energy Conservation Ordinance

By 2020, 14% reduction in national greenhouse gas emissions, compared to 2005 levels, as stated in EU Effort Sharing Decision. National Emission Target under EU Effort Sharing

Aims to reduce energy consumption in the EU through energy labeling. Establishes greater harmonization across the EU for energy labeling. States that the European Commission is establishing a product database accessible via an online portal. This database consists of a public and a non-public part. Public aspect: consumers and retailers can view product data and independent suppliers can perform evaluations to inform consumers. Non-public aspect: accessible only to the market surveillance authorities and the Commission, aimed facilitating efficient market surveillance across the EU. Expected delivery in 2019. New Framework Regulation on Energy Labeling

Establishes the national framework for the enforcement of product-specific implementing eco-design measures, implementing EU’s Ecodesign Directive (2005/32/EC). Within this Act, eco-design regulations ensure that inefficient products are no longer allowed on the market, and with the energy label, EU countries intend to shift the market towards more energy-efficient products. Energy-Related Products Act/Eco-Design Implementation and 2017 EU Directive Update

Establishes Energy Efficiency Fund to assist in a large number of different measures to improve energy efficiency in SMEs and industry, private consumers and municipalities. Energy Efficiency Fund

Funds energy audit for SMEs through the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy. The grant covers 80% of the energy auditing costs, with the maximum amount set at €6,000. For smaller companies that spend less than €10,000 on energy bills, the maximum amount is €1,200. Funding Energy Audits for SMEs

Provides funding for companies to implement highly efficient cross-cutting technologies. 2016 revision of the program puts an even stronger focus on the industrial sector. Investment Grants for the Use of Highly Efficient Cross-Cutting Technologies

Establishes a tax benefit for manufacturing companies bearing significant cost burdens due to electricity duty. Energy efficiency measures such as implementation of energy management systems and achieving energy efficiency targets are a requirement to benefit from the exemption.

Establishes national energy efficiency labeling for old heating systems and requires heaters and boilers to be given an energy efficiency grading during the existing mandatory chimney-sweep visits. National Energy Efficiency Action Plan

Establishes ‘Top-Runner Initiative’ to push for increased energy efficiency in supply chains and product development through the creation of higher standard at a national level and the granting of EUR 6 million in research support. National Energy Efficiency Action Plan

Establishes Energy Efficiency Network Initiative that targets the creation of 500 “Energy Efficiency Networks” by 2020 to provide implementation frameworks and tools for the government’s energy efficiency plan at a local level. National Energy Efficiency Action Plan

Extends energy efficiency program to include two new levels of access to the program (“Starter” program at 10% energy savings, and the “Premium Standard” at 30%). The program supports private sector energy efficiency improvements through soft loans. National Energy Efficiency Action Plan

Creates pilot phase of energy efficiency tenders, “Step Up!,” (2015-2018). Total funding €300 million through 2018. ‘STEP up’ is designed to encourage companies to identify areas where they can improve their energy efficiency and implement measures that take longer than three years to amortize in terms of electricity costs. Funding is available for any kind of investment that is proven to reduce a company’s electricity consumption, no matter if this means changing standard components or developing tailored systems solutions or whether action is taken on the company’s premises or at their customer’s premises. National Energy Efficiency Action Plan & STEP Up

Extends funding and scope of CO2 Building Refurbishment Program — now applicable to commercial and communal properties, as well as residential. National Energy Efficiency Action Plan

Creates tax incentives for energy efficiency refurbishment targeted at improving energy efficiency and renewable heat usage in residential buildings. National Energy Efficiency Action Plan

Establishes quality control and optimization of existing energy consultancy services to support energy efficiency consulting for refurbishment plans of entire buildings, including groups of owners. National Energy Efficiency Action Plan

By 2050, 50% reduction in primary energy consumption from 2008 levels. National Energy Efficiency Action Plan

By 2020, 20% reduction in primary energy consumption from 2008 levels. National Energy Efficiency Action Plan

By 2020, 2.1% average annual increase in macroeconomic energy productivity from 2008 levels. National Energy Efficiency Action Plan

Establishes guidelines for funding of renewable energy. Switches mechanism from prices fixed by government to prices set by competitive auctions. Sets specific deployment plans for each type of energy (funding will be auctioned for offshore wind energy, onshore wind energy, photovoltaics, biomass). Exempted: installations ≤ 750 kW (biomass: ≤ 150 kW). Auctions will cover 80% of newbuild. Renewable Energy Sources Act

Establishes a market incentive program for individual homeowners, businesses, and municipalities, allocating subsidies for the use of renewable energy. Funding is provided for private consumers who decide to have their heating system retrofitted to run on renewables. Funding is provided for the installation of solar thermal installations (with a collector area of up to 40 square meters), biomass-based heating systems (with a nominal heating capacity of up to 100 kW), and heat pumps (with a nominal heating capacity of up to 100 kW). The funding program places a special focus on setting up new installations in existing buildings. In the case of new buildings, funding is only available for certain innovative types of installations. Market Incentives Program

Requires that the heat requirement for new buildings (greater than 50 square meters) be covered proportionately with renewable energies. The owner can determine which form of renewable energy is to be used. Establishes a certain minimum proportion of the total heating and / or cooling needs to be generated by renewable energies. The proportion depends on which renewable energies are used: Solar radiation: at least 15 % of the heating and cooling energy requirements of the building must be covered by a solar thermal system Solid or liquid biomass: 50% Geothermal energy: 50% Establishes replacement measures. Renewable Energies Heat Act

Allows conventional hydraulic fracturing in sandstone for the production of tight gas, a traditional technique used in natural gas fields, to continue despite fracking ban, but under more stringent conditions for permit application: An environmental impact assessment is required. Only non-hazardous or low hazardous fracturing fluids are allowed. In the case of damages due to seismic events, a reversal of evidence is provided: in case of doubt, the companies will have to prove that damage is not caused by hydraulic fracturing activities. Prohibition and Minimization of the Risks of Fracking Technology

Prohibits commercial hydraulic fracturing for the production of shale gas as well as shale oil (unconventional hydraulic fracturing). Limited test drillings (four authorized) will be carried out to provide for experts to prepare yearly reports to the German Bundestag. In 2021, the Parliament will reassess whether the ban of unconventional hydraulic fracturing should continue. Prohibition and Minimization of the Risks of Fracking Technology

Aims to expand grid infrastructure to encourage renewable energy supply. Simplifies the planning of grid expansion projects which involve several federal states or cross national boundaries: power line routes are centrally planned and approved by the Federal Network Agency in a process involving early public participation. Establishes the Federal Network Agency as responsible for the statutory planning approval procedure for grid expansion projects, which means it can define the precise route of the power lines. The transfer of the planning responsibility from state to federal level is intended to streamline the process and avoids the fragmentation of tasks. Grid Expansion Acceleration Act

Requires the decommissioning of constant temperature boilers installed before 1 January 1985 or which have been in service for more than 30 years (previous qualifying date of 1 January 1978; boilers in certain one and two-family dwellings occupied by the owner continue to be excluded from this regulation). Energy Conservation Ordinance

Establishes the recording of efficiency classes in energy performance certificates for residential buildings as well as the obligation to provide notification in real estate advertisements when selling and letting property. And establishes an independent system for spot checks of energy performance certificates and reports on the inspection of air conditioning systems. Energy Conservation Ordinance

Requires the display of energy performance certificates in certain buildings which are frequently visited by the public, but which are not occupied by public authorities. Energy Conservation Ordinance

Requires disclosure of key energy figures in real estate advertisements when selling and renting properties and that an energy performance certificate must be made available to a potential buyer or tenant of a building at the viewing stage. Extends requirement of the existing duty to display energy performance certificates in buildings used by public authorities and frequently visited by the public to smaller buildings. Energy Conservation Ordinance

Requires (from 2016 onwards) a reduction of approximately 25% in terms of primary energy consumption and around 20% in terms of heat transfer loss (the latter one reflecting the thermal insulation of the building shell) for new buildings. Energy Conservation Ordinance

Creates the obligation of the nearly zero-energy standard for new buildings. This obligation will apply to all new public buildings from 2019 onwards and to all other new buildings as of 2021. Energy Conservation Act

Creates the legal framework to promote energy transition in the buildings sector. It serves to implement Federal Government decisions on the energy concept and the energy transition and is based on European guidelines (EU Directive on the Energy Performance in Buildings 2010/31/EU). Energy Conservation Act

Act aims to enhance competition and secure the supply and sustainability of energy production. Requires electricity labeling according to type of energy source. Calls for consistent and efficient offshore grid expansion and introduces a binding offshore grid development plan. Energy Industry Act

Provides the basis and requirements for energy labeling of products in Germany. It transposes the EU Energy Labeling Directive into national law, introduces new classes of labeling (previously only A-G, now up to A+++), and introduces a requirement that not only energy-consuming equipment, but also energy-related products, which themselves do not consume energy, are marked with the EU energy label. Energy Consumption Labeling Act

By 2050, 50% reduction in primary energy consumption, compared to 2008 levels. Energy Concept 2010

By 2020, 20% reduction in primary energy consumption, compared to 2008 levels. Energy Concept 2010

Implements EU Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings, including requirements on the calculation of energy performance in buildings, minimum energy performance requirements for new and renovated buildings, energy certification of buildings and inspection of boilers and air condition systems.

By 2020, 114% of electricity demand met by electricity generated from renewable sources.

By 2020, 43% of heat consumption met by renewable sources.

Complies with the EU Directive 2009/28/EC member countries of the European Union are obliged to draft and submit to the European Commission National Renewable Action Plans (NREAPs) outlining pathway which will allow them to meet their 2020 renewable energy, energy efficiency and GHG cuts targets. Norway has adopted the RES Directive as part of the EEA agreement. Details 2020 renewable energy targets.

Enova SF, as a state enterprise owned by the Norwegian government (Ministry of Petroleum and Energy) funded through “the Energy Fund,” (financed by a levy on the electricity grid tariff and by allocations from the state budget), with an annual budget of more than NOK 2,6 billion, aims to contribute to greenhouse gas emissions reduction and increased energy security. It provides investment aid and conditional loans to related projects.

Implements EU directive on labeling of energy use in household products. The EU will redesign the energy label for some products, with classes A to G, and will create a product database where manufactures will be required to submit the relevant information about their products. The product database registration will be in force beginning January 1, 2019. For products launched between August 1, 2017 and January 1, 2019, suppliers shall, by June 30, 2019, enter in the product database the product-related information. From January 1, 2019, all new products must be registered before marketing. Standards and Labeling for Energy-Related Products & FAQ on Recent Updates

Establishes a framework for setting eco-design requirements for energy-related products with the aim of ensuring the free movement of such products within the EU market. Aims to increase energy efficiency, protection of the environment, and the security of energy supply. Requires that before a product covered by this Directive is placed on the market and/or put into service, a CE marking is to be affixed and an EC declaration of conformity issued whereby the manufacturer or its authorized representative ensures compliance. Calls on Member States to develop systems for market surveillance and penalties for non-compliance.

Extends Norway’s commitment to the Kyoto Protocol through the second commitment period (2020).

Regulates offshore renewable energy production. Requires that the Norwegian Government to have designated specific geographical zones for license applications for any construction of offshore wind power and other renewable energy production units/facilities at sea to occur. The opening of zones requires that a strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is implemented.

Aims to prevent products from causing environmental disruption (in the form of disturbance of ecosystems, pollution, waste, noise) and to prevent environmental disturbance by promoting effective energy use in products. Producers/suppliers are to assess whether the product may result in environmental disruption, as defined by the Act, and provide adequate consumer information. Includes a ‘substitution obligation’ clause for businesses: requiring that a ‘business using a chemical substance that may cause effect as mentioned shall assess whether there is an alternative that results in less risk of such an effect. In this case, the business should choose this option, if it can happen without unreasonable cost or inconvenience.’

Aims to limit GHG emissions via a trading mechanism. Establishes government authority over the number of allowances to be allocated and which of these allowances will be issued free of charge. Regulates reporting and control related to emissions and allowances and sets out penal measures for those operators not complying with reporting obligations.

Aims to increase generation of electrical energy from renewable energy sources. Establishes a system of green certificates, which are issued by the Norwegian state to renewable energy producers (hydropower, wind, solar, ocean energy, geothermal, bioenergy). The certificates can be issued for production that takes place through December 31, 2035. Certificates can be sold to anyone with a certificate account and can be pledged as security. Quota obligations apply to: anyone supplying electrical energy to an end-user, anyone consuming self-produced electrical energy, and anyone purchasing electrical energy for own consumption on the Nordic power exchange or through a bilateral agreement.

By 2020, 30-40% reduction in GHG emissions compared to 1990 levels.

By 2020 achieve nearly zero energy level in buildings.

From 1990, Norway has excised a CO2 tax on petroleum which is burnt, natural gas discharged to air, on CO2 separated from petroleum and discharged to air, and on installations used in connection with production or transportation of petroleum. Over time the CO2 tax has been expanded and as of 2017 is NOK 450 per tonne of CO2 for many sources (mineral oil, natural gas, LPG, petrol and diesel) (Seventh National Communication).

States that petroleum resources will be managed in a long-term perspective so as to benefit the entire Norwegian society in regards to resource management, generation of income and employment for the country, ensuring a better environment, and strengthening Norwegian business and industrial development. Restricts petroleum activity to the State unless granted permissions, approvals, and consents as required by this Act. Applies to petroleum activities related to subsea petroleum deposits subject to Norwegian jurisdiction and petroleum activities in and outside the empire and the Norwegian continental shelf as it follows from international law or by agreement with a foreign state. Act details requirements and limitations related to examination permits, production licenses, recovery of petroleum, decommissioning, registrations, liabilities, social requirements, special rules of compensation to Norwegian fishermen, and other general terms.

By 2030, achieve carbon neutrality.

As of 2020, participates in ICAO’s voluntary Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA). Pilot phase of Corsia is 2021 through 2023.

By 2050, achieve carbon neutrality (and possibility to further tighten this time-frame).

Sets out mitigation-related measures to be implemented: create a climate and energy fund for development of technology and industrial transformation, increase offshore supply of electric power from the mainland, while safeguarding biological diversity, increase state subsidies for investment in, and operation of, municipal public transportation and other environmentally-friendly forms of transportation, adopt climate measures in agriculture and carbon removals in forests through active forest management, maintain or increase the forest carbon stock through active, sustainable forest policies, improve incentives for the use of bio-energy derived from wood, and increase the mandatory sale of bio-fuels to 5%.

By 2020, 30% reduction of GHG emissions compared to 1990 levels.

By 2030, at least 40% reduction in GHG emissions compared to 1990 levels, covering energy, industrial process and product use, agriculture, land-use and land-use change, forestry, and waste.

Sets out a basic strategic approach for the transition to renewables and energy efficiency for a secure, environmentally compatible and competitive supply of energy. States that renewables should account for the main share of the energy supply. Energy Concept 2010

By 2040, 70% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, compared to 1990 levels. Energy Concept 2010

Establishes the Energy and Climate Fund. The fund provides finance for energy efficiency, renewable energy, energy storage and grid technology, energetic refurbishment of buildings, national climate action, international climate and environment action, and the development of electric mobility. Energy and Climate Fund (EKFG)

By 2025, increase net electricity generation from combined heat and power plants to 110 terawatt hours by 2020 and to 120 terawatt hours. Combined Heat and Power Act

By 2020, increase electricity generation from CHP by 25%. Source: Combined Heat and Power Act

Aims to increase electricity generation from CHP plants, to support the launch of the fuel cell sector and funding for construction and expansion of heating and cooling systems. Combined Heat and Power Act

Provides for an annual storage of no more than 1.3m tons of CO2 and a maximum storage capacity of 4m tons of CO2 per year in Germany. Stipulates that permits can only be granted if an application for a CO2 storage facility has been made by 31 December 2016. Carbon Capture and Storage Act

Regulates the exploration, testing, and demonstration of permanent CO2 storage technology. It is the national-level implementing legislation for the EU Directive on the geological storage of CO2. Carbon Capture and Storage Act

Sets sustainability criteria for the production of biofuels. Sustainability Requirements for Biofuels

Between 2017 and 2019, companies in the oil industry have to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 6% compared to the total quantity of gasoline fuel fossil diesel fuel and biofuel that they place on the market.

By 2030, 49-51% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in the industry sector, compared to 1990 levels. Climate Change Action Plan (Klimaschutzplan) 2050

By 2030, 66-67% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in the buildings sector, compared to 1990 levels. Climate Change Action Plan (Klimaschutzplan) 2050

By 2030, 61-62% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in the energy sector, compared to 1990 levels. Climate Change Action Plan (Klimaschutzplan) 2050

By 2030, at least 55% reduction in greenhouse gases, compared to 1990 levels. Climate Change Action Plan (Klimaschutzplan) 2050

By 2050, 80 to 95% percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, compared to 1990 levels. Climate Change Action Plan (Klimaschutzplan) 2050

Provides guidance to all areas of action in the process to achieve domestic climate targets in line with the Paris Agreement. Areas of action include: energy, buildings, transport, trade and industry, agriculture and forestry. Key goal is to establish long-term targets aligned with national greenhouse gas neutrality by 2050, including sector-specific milestones for 2030. The plan will be fleshed out with programs and measures , with the first program to be adopted in 2018.

Outlines key policy measures to be implemented by 2020 to in order to reach Germany’s goal of cutting greenhouse gas emissions reduction target. Focuses on energy efficiency, building sector, transport sector, industry, agriculture, and emissions trading reform. The program will lead to a reduction of 62m-78m tonnes CO2 equivalent in 2020 compared with the current projection for 2020. In addition to this a further 3m-4m tonnes can be saved through soft, cross-sectoral measures, bringing about a total reduction of 82m tonnes.

Until 2020, the cap on total aviation allowances was originally set at 210,349,264 per year and has been increased by 116,524 allowances per year from 1 January 2014 onwards to account for Croatia’s full integration into the EU ETS (EU Emissions Trading Scheme – aviation cap).

2013 cap for emissions from fixed installations is set at 2,084,301,856 allowances as part of Phase 3. Between 2013-2020, this cap decreases each year by 1.74%, amounting to a reduction of 38,264,246 allowances each year (EU Emissions Cap). Auctioning is the default method for allocating allowances and 300 million allowances set aside in the New Entrants Reserve to fund the deployment of innovative renewable energy technologies and carbon capture and storage through the NER 300 programme (Phase 3). In 2021, the pace of annual reductions in allowances increases to 2.2%.(Phase 4).

By 2030, at least 40% reduction in GHG emissions compared to 1990 levels covering 100% of GHG emissions, to be fulfilled jointly between EU countries.

Aims to provide information about the lighting quality to the public by showing ratings in order to promote energy savings. 

Allows for loans at an interest rate lower than that provided by national banks available to farmers, particularly for planting palm oil for biofuels. Enables small and medium-size enterprises to obtain low-cost finance from national banks for food and energy crops.

Regulates geothermal activities, outlines procedures and requirements for obtaining permits, bids, data, supervision on geothermal mining business operations, administrative sanctions, etc. 

Stipulates income tax adjustments for energy development projects, including net income reduction, accelerated depreciation, and reduced dividends for foreign investors and compensation for losses.

Pertaining to renewable energy and power plants, stipulates that import duty exemptions are valid for machinery and capital for renewable energy and for capital goods required for public electricity supply (on- and off-grid). Value Added Tax (VAT) exemptions apply to taxable goods imported to develop renewable energy projects, as long as no substitutes are manufactured in Indonesia. The VAT exemption applies to machinery (both constructed and dismantled); while tax may still be raised on spare parts that companies need to use renewable energy for end-product manufacturing.

Aims to diversify domestic biodiesel consumption beyond the transportation sector (Indonesia’s main biodiesel consumer). Sets targets for biodiesel use: Transportation (PSO): 20% by 2020, 25% by 2025 Transportation (Non-PSO): 20% by 2020, 25% by 2025 Industry: 20% by 2020, 25% by 2025 Electricity: 30% by 2020, 35% by 2025 Sets targets for ethanol use: Transportation (PSO): 5% by 2020, 10% by 2025 Transportation (Non-PSO): 10% by 2020, 20% by 2025 Industry: 10% by 2020, 20% by 2025 Sets targets for pure palm oil use: Industry: 20% by 2020, 20% by 2025 Sea Transportation: 20% by 2020, 20% by 2025 Electricity: 20% by 2020, 20% by 2025

By 2025, achieve 30% coal, 22% oil, 23% renewable resources and 25% natural gas in energy mix.

Aims to minimize oil consumption, increase the exploitation and consumption of renewables and coal, optimize gas production and consumption. Stipulates that exports of natural gas and coal are to be reduced gradually, and phased out eventually at a future date to be specified. Aims for an energy price that reflects “the economic equality value.”

Allows accelerated depreciation of fixed assets including investments in the renewable energy sector.

Intends to promote the development of solar power plants. Establishes process for the appointment of a developer to construct and operate a solar PV plant.

Grants Feed-In Tariffs for a period of 20 years in the range of USD 0.145-0.25/kWh and vary by regions. This policy targets development of 250 MW of PV capacity in 22 provinces. Conditions include: a capacity quota of 250MW as the eligible maximum, maximum limit of project size per developer based on the available quota in the region (if quota is below 10MW, there’s no limit; if quota is between 10-100 MW the limit for developers is 20% of the quota; if quota is above 100 MW, the limit for developers is 20 MW), the largest quota is in Java at 150 MW and the smallest quota is 2.5 MW in Papua/West Papua combined provinces. Local content on the project is required (43.8%), subject to the minimum based on the Ministry of Trade and Industry’s regulations. If the requirement is not reached, the FiT will be reduced by the same percentage.

By 2025, expand generation capacity by 45%. The private sector will contribute 57% of the total new capacity. Planned power mix for 45.7GW allocated to Independent Power Producers is: Coal: 25.2GW Gas: 6.7GW Hydro: 6.8GW Geothermal: 5.1GW Others: 1.9GW The unallocated 16.6GW has the following power mix: Coal: 1.7GW Gas: 9.3GW Hydro: 2GW Geothermal: 0.7GW Solar: 2.9GW

Between 2015-2019 add 35 GW of additional electricity capacity, 23% to be from renewables (including Hydro, Geothermal and Solar resources) as set out by the 2014 National Energy Policy (NEP).

Aims to increase the use of biofuel as a replacement fossil-based fuel. Creates the National Team for Biofuel Development to support policy implementation on national and sub-national levels and between sectors. The Biofuel Road Map establishes a specific agenda for biofuel production targets. For the period of 2016-2025: biodiesel utilisation 20% of diesel fuel consumption – 10.22 mln kL bioethanol utilisation 15% of gasoline consumption – 6.28 mln kL biokerosene utilisation – 4.07 mln kL pure plantation oil for power plant use – 1.69 mln kL biofuel utilisation 5% of energy mix – 22.26 mln kL Creates Special Biofuel Zones (SBZ): areas, of at least 10,000 hectares in Java or 100,000 outside Java in size, are dedicated to biofuel crops plantation and transformation. Villages located in the Special Biofuel Zones, known as Energy Self-Sufficient Villages (ESSV), are to receive regional funding to set up renewable energy development plans in accordance with local renewable potentials.

By 2025, 15% of the country’s electricity demand to be from renewable energy sources. Specific targets for energy production from various renewable energy sources are established as follows: Geothermal: 9 500 MW; Small-scale hydropower: 500 MW (on grid) 330 MW (off grid); Solar energy: 80 MW; Biomass for power generation: 810 MW Wind energy: 250 MW (on grid) 5 MW (off grid)

Calls on leaders of Central and local government institutions to save water and energy within their institutional domain. This Presidential Instruction sets an electricity reduction target of 20%, a fuel reduction target of 10%, and a water-use reduction target of 10%.

Aims to establish a GHG inventory administration guideline and an administration to co-ordinate that inventory. Mandates different bodies of the government to produce national, local and corporate greenhouse gas inventories annually. The national inventory is submitted to the UNFCCC and is coordinated by the Ministry of Environment.

Identifies the key sectors in which Indonesia will make emissions reductions: Agriculture, Forestry and Peat land, Energy and Transportation, Industry and Waste Management, and evaluates the potential of NAMA development for these sectors. The Provinces are expected to make their own action plans. Established the target of a 26% reduction in GHG emissions below “Business-as-Usual” by 2020.

Requires that the cement production subsector voluntarily reduce GHG emission intensity by 2% from 2011-2015 and 3% from 2016-2020 below 2009 levels (0.85 tCO2/t cement).

Implements the Regulation on Energy Conservation, establishing provisions for energy preservation and management. Mandates that energy consumers consuming more than 6000 toe per year are obliged to implement energy management through appointing an Energy Manager, developing short, medium, and long term energy conservation programs, conducting regular energy audits (at least once every three years), implementing energy audit recommendations, and submitting annual reports to the Government on the status of energy conservation programs and audit measure implementation.

Establishes differentiated feed-in tariff levels depending on the installation type, its location, and voltage of grid interconnection. Biomass, biogas, municipal waste and hydropower plants below generation capacity of 10 MW benefit from this scheme, though Regulation does not specify how long eligible renewable plants will benefit from introduced tariff. Stipulates that the State electricity company PT Perusahaan Listrik Negara (PT PLN) is obliged to purchase electricity generated from renewable energy installations.

Implements the conservation aspect of the Energy Law. Mandates the drafting and adoption of a new National Energy Conservation Master Plan, introduces voluntary energy efficiency standards and energy labeling, and calls for the development of incentives for improved energy management as well as disincentives for non-compliance. Specifies that producers or importers of energy appliances are responsible for implementing energy efficiency labeling. Mandates energy audits and public reporting on energy efficiency.

Directs Mayors, Governors, and Ministers to implement energy and water efficiency in government offices. Establishes the National Taskforce for Energy and Water Efficiency, which is charged with policy development for energy and water efficiency, reducing non-essential use of energy and water, and monitoring and reporting activities to the President.

Aims to promote national energy efficiency, adoption of renewable energy, the diversification of energy supply, the improvement of the storage and transmission of energy, and energy access for remote, under-developed, and rural areas. Establishes the institutional structure for energy management and the National Energy Council (NEC), which is responsible for designing, implementing, and monitoring national energy policy.

Regulates geothermal activities, specifies that geothermal activities will no longer be considered ‘mining activities’ and that tenders for geothermal exploration will now be issued by central government. Requires that local communities either receive a share in revenue or a production bonus from the geothermal power plant.

By 2025, 22% minimum of energy supply mix to be from gas, 24% minimum by 2050.

By 2025, 30% minimum of energy supply mix to be from coal, 25% minimum by 2050.

By 2025, less than 25% of energy supply mix to be from oil, less than 20% by 2050.

By 2030, 41% conditional reduction in GHG emissions in energy, waste, industrial process and product use, agriculture, and forestry, against BAU scenario, subject to availability of international support for finance, technology transfer and development and capacity building.

By 2030, 29% reduction in GHG emissions in energy, waste, industrial process and product use, agriculture, and forestry against BAU scenario.

By 2020, 26% reduction in GHG emissions in energy, waste, industrial process and product use, agriculture, and forestry, against BAU scenario.

Establishes the RenovAr auction program, bidding terms and conditions of the auction, and outlines Power Purchase Agreements (PPA) for renewable electricity. The first round of RenovAr auctions was announced in July 2016, round three will take place in the second half of 2018.

Creates the National Argentine Carbon Fund (FAC) and aims to incentivize projects within the framework of The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), as defined by Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol. The Secretary of Environment and Sustainable Development administers the fund.

Extends the regimen for the National Promotion for the Production and Use of Renewable Sources of Electric Energy for the period of 2018-2025. It sets national renewable energy targets, establishes a fund for financing renewable energy projects, and defines minimum renewable requirements for large consumers. Creates a new Fund for the Development of Renewable Energies (FODER), which is to be partially funded by the National Treasury, estimated at about US$41 billion by 2025.

Requires that by 31 December 2017, 8% of all electricity consumed nationally must be generated from renewable energy sources. Creates a fund to finance renewable energy projects, within the Federal Program for the Development of Renewable Energy, including feed-in tariffs, tax benefits, exemptions on import duties, and accelerated amortization of Income Tax. Expands national approach to “renewable sources” to include wave energy, ocean currents energy and biofuels as well as the scope of support of the Program and Fund to hydropower plants with capacity up to 50 MW.

Prohibits the importation and commercialization of incandescent light bulbs for residential use throughout the country.

Establishes a national focus on the technological development, the production of, and the use of hydrogen fuel, as well as other alternative energy sources. States the development of a National Program for Hydrogen to: incentivize the application of hydrogen energy technology; incentivize the private sector participation in the generation and production of hydrogen energy; promote regional co-operation and technology transfer between Mercosur trade bloc countries; promote public education on the importance of alternative energy use; and incentivize the industrialization of hydrogen fuel cells. Stated goals will be realized in part through the creation of The National Fund of Hydrogen Promotion (FONHIDRO), which will also oversee various tax exemptions and deductions for participating firms.

Provides a regulatory framework for the production and promotion of biofuels, for which the National Advisory Commission for the Promotion of the Production and Sustainable Use of Biofuels holds the authority. States that by 2010 all gasoline produced and consumed in Argentina must be composed of no less than 5% biofuels and has since been raised to 10%, and in 2016 to 12%. Establishes tax incentives for producers that comply with certain requirements, tax breaks for investing companies, lower export taxes for biodiesel, VAT reimbursement and accelerated depreciation of assets for income tax purposes, and exempts biofuels from the Hydrocarbon and Diesel taxes.

This program was established under the National Program for Rational and Efficient Use of Energy to implement energy efficiency measures in national public buildings. Aims to promote knowledge about energy usage of these buildings; control and reduce the consumption of electricity and natural gas; standardize the management system; and establish recommendations and implement energy efficiency measures.

Establishes medium and long-term goals relating to energy efficiency for various sectors including industry, commercial/services, housing/construction. Goals include: formulating sector-specific Energy Efficiency Programs; developing joint action plans with companies; enhancing energy monitoring; implementing financing mechanisms for SMEs; developing guiding standards relating to efficient lighting, heating, and air conditioning systems; revising building regulations and codes; designating maximum and minimum efficiency standards for electric appliances and machines produced or commercialized in Argentina; proposing a timeline to ban the production, importation and commercialization of incandescent light bulbs; developing incentive systems such as preferential financing for measures that reduce consumption; designing implementation strategy for solar water heating systems; and promoting and regulating the cogeneration of electricity and heat with new and existing energy providing companies.

Aims to reduce energy consumption and promote the use of renewable energy. Establishes a National Program for Rational and Efficient Energy Use and funding for the program, of which the Energy Secretary has implementation authority. Sets medium and long-term actions for various industries.

Creates a National Cabinet for Climate Change (NCCC) comprised of 12 ministries (Energy, Economic Development, Agriculture, Transport, Environment, Social Development, Education, Science, Interior and Culture, Foreign Ministry) with a principal objective to articulate climate change policies and promote climate change awareness. Key tasks include: preparing the National Plan for Response to Climate Change and proposing Sectoral Action Plans at the ministerial level for mitigation and adaptation in important and vulnerable sectors.

By 2030, on a conditional basis, shall not exceed net emissions of 369 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2eq).  

By 2030, shall not exceed net emissions of 483 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2eq).

Aims to provide a regulatory framework for petroleum exploration and recovery, and the exploration for potential GHG storage formations, injection and storage of GHG substances in offshore areas. Designates a “Joint Authority” for each offshore area, responsible for implementing the Act.

Creates a financial incentive for the establishment or expansion of renewable energy power stations, such as wind and solar farms or hydro-electric power stations by legislating demand for Large-scale Generation Certificates (LGCs). One LGC can be created for each megawatt-hour of eligible renewable electricity produced by an accredited renewable power station. LGCs can be sold to entities (mainly electricity retailers) that surrender them annually to the Clean Energy Regulator to demonstrate their compliance with the Renewable Energy Target scheme’s annual targets.

Creates a collaborative partnership between Federal and State governments, the coal and electricity generation industries, and the research community. The goals of ‘COAL21’ are to: create a national plan to scope, develop, demonstrate and implement near zero emissions coal-based electricity generation; inform policy development; facilitate the demonstration, commercialization and early uptake of technologies; provide a mechanism for effective interaction and integration with other international zero-emission coal initiatives.

Provides support for the accelerated deployment of industrial scale Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) demonstration projects.  

Establishes the Carbon Neutral Program, a voluntary scheme that certifies products, business operations or events as carbon neutral against the Australian Government’s National Carbon Offset Standard (the Standard).

Establishes the National Carbon Offset Standard as a way for organizations to reduce carbon pollution beyond Australia’s national targets. Provides a benchmark for businesses and other organizations voluntarily seeking to be carbon neutral for their operations, products, services or events. The Standard sets out requirements for achieving carbon neutrality.

Establishes the Emissions Reduction Fund to help Australia meet its emissions reduction target. The Government will purchase lowest cost abatement (in the form of Australian carbon credit units) from a wide range of sources, providing an incentive to businesses, households and landowners to proactively reduce their emissions. 

Aims to encourage the additional generation of electricity from renewable sources; reduce emissions of greenhouse gases in the electricity sector; and ensure that renewable energy sources are ecologically sustainable. Objectives are to be achieved though electricity certificates: large-scale generation certificates, created in relation to the generation of electricity by accredited power stations; and small-scale technology certificates, created in relation to the installation of solar water heaters and small generation units. A wide range of renewable energy sources are eligible.

Establishes ARENA, an independent agency to improve the competitiveness of renewable energy technologies and to increase the supply of renewable energy in Australia. Funding is made available for renewable energy projects and research and development activities.

By 2030, 40% improvement in national energy, from 2015. Supported by the National Energy Productivity Plan (NEPP), a framework to better coordinate energy market reform, energy efficiency and climate policy, and stimulate innovation and more productive consumer choices. Measures include: increased energy efficiency improvement across the residential, commercial and industrial sectors in buildings, appliances and equipment; smarter management of energy; improvement in light vehicle fuel efficiency; reformed electricity and gas market policy to further support new emerging clean technologies and help consumers to reduce energy costs; support to technological and business-model innovation in the energy sector and growth in renewable energy and expansion of the Emission Reduction Fund.

Promotes the development and adoption of products that use less energy, produce fewer GHGs, or contribute to the reducing of energy or GHGs produced by other products. It is also intended to give effect to Australia’s obligations under the UNFCCC. Establishes greenhouse and energy minimum standards (GEMS), applied to the supply and commercial use of products that either use energy, or affect the energy used by another product. The specific GEMS are provided for by requirements in Ministerial determinations. A GEMS register is established to ensure products comply with GEMS.

Establishes the Clean Energy Finance Corporation to facilitate increased flows of finance into the clean energy sector. Invests funds in renewable energy, low-emissions technology, and energy efficiency projects. Funding is generally provided through loans on commercial or concessional terms. However, the CEFC is not restricted from using other structures to address impediments to investment in the clean energy sector. CEFC is an Australian-owned Green Bank.

Provides the overarching framework for energy efficiency policy. Focuses on improving minimum standards for energy efficiency and accelerating the introduction of new technologies to transition to a low-carbon future.

Requires energy efficiency information, in the form of a Building Energy Efficiency Certificate, to be provided when commercial office over a certain size (1,000 square meters) is offered for sale or lease. Aims to improve the energy efficiency of Australia’s large office buildings and includes heavy financial penalties for non-compliance.

Supports the development and implementation of energy management and energy efficiency strategies by companies. Produces resources such as case studies, energy saving opportunities in key sectors and technologies, information on business support programs, financing options and business case guidance to help companies integrate energy efficiency into all areas of their business.

Establishes energy efficiency provisions for all building classifications under Building Code Australia (BCA) and a Nation-wide House Energy Rating Scheme (NatHERS) to enable householders to assess the energy efficiency of houses.

Establishes the Australian Government’s Safeguard Mechanism, under the NGER scheme, to ensure that emission reductions purchased by the Government are not offset by significant increases in emissions above business as usual levels elsewhere in the economy.  

Establishes the legislative framework for the National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting Scheme, which introduces a single national reporting framework for the reporting and dissemination of information related to GHG emissions, GHG projects, energy consumption and energy production of corporations. Establishes thresholds in relation to GHG emissions, energy production and energy consumption. Corporations that meet an annual NGER threshold must register with the Clean Energy Regulator, and submit annual reports of GHG emissions, energy production, energy consumption, and other information. Information is housed in the NGER EERS.

Phases out inefficient incandescent bulbs and promotes efficient lighting alternatives including compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs). Implemented through the establishment of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for lighting products.

Establishes a voluntary performance-based rating system that measures an existing buildings overall environmental performance during operation (National Australian Built Environment Rating System – NABERS). Measures the energy efficiency, water usage, waste management and indoor environment quality of a building or tenancy and its impact on the environment.

Aims to increase the energy efficiency of lighting, appliances, and equipment used in residential, commercial, and manufacturing sectors in Australia and New Zealand. Administers energy efficiency standards as well as labeling programs (Minimum Energy Performance Standards [MEPS] and High Efficiency Performance Standards [HEPS]) and comparative energy rating labeling. New Zealand is a partner in the E3 Program under a bilateral agreement between Australia and New Zealand. Performance standards and energy rating labeling are regulated through state and territory government regulations and penalties exist for non-compliance.

By 2030, 26-28% reduction in GHG emissions, economy-wide, below 2005 levels.

States objectives for Co2 Capture at Hawiyah Plant: to boost oil recovery by 7% to 9% and permanently sequester roughly 40% of the injected CO2.

Establishes objectives for state-owned Saudi Aramco: -Reduce energy consumption at our facilities by 2% per year -Design new facilities to be energy efficient -Increase overall energy efficiency -Influence and promote energy efficiency at the national level

Provides framework for desalination activity and addresses various aspects of the industry, including production, dispatch, and transportation. Includes codes for planning, connection, operating, water metering, scheduling & dispatch.

Provides regulations and technical requirements for energy distribution.

Establishes energy efficiency standards and ratings. Requires a variety of appliances to be registered with Saudi Arabian Standards Organization (SASO) and labeled with an energy efficiency rating (construction and building materials, chemical and petroleum products, electrical and electronic products, mechanical and metal products). Creates labeling scheme for non-ducted air conditioners and heat pumps; ducted air conditioners and air-to-air heat pumps; household refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers and freezers; household washing machines.

By 2032, generate 17.6GW of nuclear power.

Establishes the King Abdullah City for Atomic and Renewable Energy (KACARE), charged with research and implementation of atomic and renewable energy policies. KACARE seeks to partner with local and international businesses to advance Saudi Arabia’s renewable and atomic energy goals. KACARE is also pursuing the issuance of solar energy tenders.

For the industry sector, aims to increase consumption efficiencies for steel, cement, petrochemicals industries (other industries to be added), and establish quantitative objectives. States that new specifications will be established for energy efficiency for equipment including engines and boilers, in compliance with the international specifications.

Defines policy objectives related to energy efficiency, including the introduction of energy audits, energy efficiency labels, standards for appliances, and a construction code. Phase 2 of the Program is focused on the capacity of the Saudi Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC). The intended outcomes include: the development of an Energy Conservation Law with related regulations and targets, the establishment of a national energy information system, the creation of training programs for energy mangers / capacity development, and a campaign to increase public awareness on energy conservation. SEEC houses the Saudi Energy Efficiency Program (SEEP), which establishes initiatives related to energy consumption for construction, land transportation, and industry sectors.

By 2030, 30% increase in energy efficiency (electricity) from 2005 levels.

By 2030, avoid up to 130 million tons of CO2eq.

Aims to promote energy investments in Egypt, including renewable energy investment. Establishes incentives to encourage investment: reduces related sales tax, sets low custom duties on renewable energy equipment (2%), refunds expenses paid to extend infrastructure facilities to the project’s land, subsidizes training programs and social insurance for employees, allocates government-owned at discounted values.

Reforms the Egyptian electricity market and aims to strengthen competitiveness of electricity market and ensure freedom of competition. The Electricity Utility and Consumer Protection Regulatory Agency is given responsibility for regulating the development and promotion of renewable energy production and use, increasing electricity use efficiency, and issuing renewable source certificates. Allows for private sector participation in electricity generation and distribution and sets out the framework for market liberalization. This law also codifies the permitting and licensing for renewable electricity production.

Establishes competitive bidding mechanism for build-own-operate (BOO) contracts for renewable energy procurement. The Egyptian Electricity Transmission Company (EETC) will hold five rounds of tenders for BOO contracts and the New and Renewable Energy Authority (NREA) is responsible for land provision to selected projects. After the decommissioning of a project, the land goes back to NREA. Contracts can be granted for 20 (wind) and 25 (solar) years.

Establishes a feed-in tariff system for solar PV and wind projects with capacity less than 50 MW in order to increase renewable energy production. States that long-term leases of state-owned land will be provided to private investors charged at 2% of the electricity produced. 

Aims to incentivize electricity production from renewable energy sources and private sector investment.

Outlines incentives for private investment in renewable energy: long-term Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs) of 20-25 years; a feed-in tariff system; a renewable energy fund to provide subsidies; exemption of renewable energy equipment from custom duties; and the pre-allocation of 7600 square km of land for renewable projects.

Outlines national concept for adaptation and mitigation measures and calls for international aid to assist in implementation. Identifies key pillars of sustainable development strategy: more efficient use of energy, increased use of renewable energy, use of advanced locally-appropriate and more-efficient fossil fuel technologies, and energy subsidy reform (implemented by setting different prices for petroleum products based on energy generation efficiency; increasing the efficiency of energy use; providing support to certain sectors to promote switching from conventional energy sources to clean energy sources; and applying the fuel subsidy smartcard system to ensure that subsidies are received by target beneficiaries). Also identifies key technology-related needs: improvements in energy conversion efficiencies, CCS, co-utilization of fossil fuel and biomass in the same plants, and the utilization of co-generation plants.

Voluntary scheme that attaches a ‘green label’ to specific products. Products must be manufactured or assembled by ISO 9002 certified plants, quality control plant according to the test method number 5.6.1, or certified by other standardized tests of product quality that may be set in the future. Products must also be manufactured, transported and disposed of in a manner meeting requirements of all applicable governmental acts and regulations.

Sets carbon intensity from power sector targets: Amount of carbon dioxide emission per unit (kgCO2/kWh): 2021 – 0.399; 2026 – 0.370; 2030 – 0.342; and 2036 – 0.319 Amount of carbon dioxide emission per annum (thousand tons of CO2): 2021 – 93,689; 2026 – 98,950; 2030 – 99,822; and 2036 – 104,075 To achieve these targets, the Plan sets target shares of energy consumption for individual energy sources to be reached in the sector: Imported hydro power: 10-15% (2026), 15-20% (2036) Clean coal including lignite: 20-25% (2026), 20-25% (2036) Renewable energy including hydro: 10-20% (2026), 15-20% (2036) Natural gas: 45-50% (2026), 30-40% (2036) Nuclear: 0% (2026), 0-5% (2036) Diesel/Fuel: 0% (2026), 0% (2036)

Emphasizes importance of improving power system reliability, reducing dependence on natural gas power generation, increasing clean coal technology deployment, and developing renewable energy. Focuses on: Energy Security: coping with the increasing power demand to correspond to National Economic and Social Development Plan and taking into account fuel diversification Economy: maintaining an appropriate cost of power generation for long-term economic competitiveness Ecology: lessening carbon dioxide intensity of power generation. Thailand Power Development Plan (2015-2036)

Aims to support fossil fuel management in line with the goals of the Energy Efficiency Plan (EEP) and Alternative Energy Development Plan (AEDP 2015), while taking into account the environment and potential risks to the country’s energy security. Sets five key management principles and details each with proposed measures: Support measures to save fuel in the transportation sector Promote optimal type of fuel according to uses Restructuring prices of fuel to reflect cost of pollution, road damage and other externalities Enhance ethanol and biodiesel consumption Encourage investment in the fuel infrastructure

Establishes the Energy Regulatory Commission (ERC) as regulatory body for the energy industry, with the following authority and duties: ensure security and reliability of the power system; inspect the energy industry operations of licensees to ensure efficiency and transparency; promote knowledge and awareness in relation to energy; promote and support human resources development in order to increase efficiency in the energy industry; promote economical and efficient use of energy and the use of renewable energy and low-impact energy, with due consideration of the efficiency of the electricity industry operations and the balance of natural resources.

Requires large-scale energy businesses, e.g. those in the electricity, oil and natural gas industry, to implement energy conservation promotion measures to encourage their customers to reduce energy use by a specified minimum standard (Energy Efficiency Resource Standards: EERS), instead of allowing such measures to be voluntarily undertaken as previously practiced.

Aims to reduce energy elasticity (the percentage change in energy consumption to achieve 1% change in national GDP) from an average of 0.98 in the past 20 years to 0.7 in the next 20 years.

By 2030, reduce energy intensity by 25%, compared with 2005 levels.

Requires “designated” factories and buildings to conduct energy audits and set targets for energy conservation. Establishes the Energy Conservation Promotion Fund to finance projects and research related to energy conservation.

Establishes the Greenhouse Gas Management Organization (TGO), which serves as the Designated National Authority for Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects in Thailand. It reviews CDM projects for approval and provides technical assistance.

By 2030, conditional reduction of up to 25% of GHG emissions, compared to 2005 levels, subject to adequate and enhanced access to technology development and transfer, financial resources and capacity building support.

By 2030, 20% reduction in GHG emissions compared to 2005 levels, economy-wide.

Requires suppliers of energy (electricity, gas, heating oil, LPG, heat, refrigeration) to meet government-mandated targets for energy savings achieved through the suppliers residential and tertiary customers. The energy savings certificates (CEE) scheme is based on a three-yearly obligation to make energy savings under CEEs (1 CEE = 1 kWh cumac61 of final energy). The third period (2015-2017) had a target of 850 TWh cumac for the period, of which 150 TWh cumac is for households in fuel poverty. The fourth period (2018-2020) increases the CEE target for the fourth period (2018-2020) to 1 600 TWh cumac, of which 400 TWh cumac is for households in fuel poverty.

Requires that all new homes and buildings for sale must undergo an energy performance evaluation (an energy performance diagnostic, or DPE), and receive an energy performance certificate. The certificate indicates both the level of energy consumption and the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission level, on a scale of A to G, with G being least efficient and highest GHG emissions. The diagnostic must be accompanied with recommendations on improving the buildings energy efficiency. The diagnostic and certificates must also be provided for rentals, and is to be provided for all new construction where the building permit was submitted after 1 July 2007. DPE applies to all public buildings, and public display of the certificate is mandatory.

By 2020, achieve 23% of share of energy generated from renewable sources in gross final energy consumption, achieve 33% of heat consumption met by renewable sources, and achieve 27% of electricity demand met by electricity generated from renewable energy sources.

Establishes a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community (EU), directive 2003/87/EC.

By 2030, significantly increase the energy efficient renovation of residential and tertiary buildings to reduce energy consumption by 28 % compared to 2010, with interim targets of 8 % for 2018 and 15 % by 2023.

Creation of the interest-free eco-loan (eco-PTZ) in 2009 aimed at individual owner-occupiers or landlords in order to finance major renovation work, specifically for overall energy performance of the building and upgrading sewage system for energy consumption reductions.

Creation of the interest-free eco-loan (eco-PTZ) in 2009 aimed at individual owner-occupiers or landlords in order to finance major renovation work, specifically for overall energy performance of the building and upgrading sewage system for energy consumption reductions.

By 2020, improve energy efficiency by 20% (Directive 2012/27/EU on energy efficiency (EED)).

By 2020, establishes dual target of reducing France’s energy consumption to 131.4 Mtoe of final energy and 219.9 Mtoe of primary energy (excluding non-energy uses and international bunkers). Targets were established in accordance with Article 3 of Directive 2012/27/EU on energy efficiency (EED).

Mandates an energy audit to be conducted for large firms every four years (except for ISO 50001 certified companies). The firms concerned are ones that have more than 250 employees or revenues exceeding 50 million euros total assets s exceeding 43 million euros in the last two accounting years (grand enterprises EU status equivalent).

By 2020, reduce energy consumption in old buildings by 38%.

Establishes a ‘low consumption building’ norm to all new buildings starting end 2012 (less than 50kWh/m2/year of primary energy consumption).

Establishes new incentive mechanisms such as tax exemptions, energy labels for buildings, and a White Certificate Program to encourage energy efficiency among firms in the energy sector as envisaged in the 2004 Climate Plan.

Establishes a High Council on Energy to manage all aspects of the energy sector (including a White Certificate scheme to encourage energy efficiency).

Establishes the transposition of the EU Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings (standards, energy performance certificate, energy efficiency studies before construction begins).

Mandates that the government must develop upon a Climate Plan every two years.

Sets a trajectory for the carbon component of domestic consumption tax rates for the 2018-2022 period. The value of the carbon component of the tariffs for these taxes is set at 44.60 euros / tonne of CO2 in 2018, 55 euros in 2019 and 65, 40 euros in 2020, to reach 86.20 euros in 2022

Aims at better monitoring of waste as well as countering against chemical waste trafficking and unregulated waste disposal.

Establishes that as of 1 January 2020, at least 40% of paper products, stationery and fiber-based prints acquired by state services and local authorities and their groupings are to be made from recycled paper, with the rest to come from sustainably managed forests.

Establishes that as of 1 January 2017, at least 25% of paper products, stationery and fiber-based prints acquired by state services and local authorities and their groupings are to be made from recycled paper, with the rest to come from sustainably managed forests.

By 2020, state services and local authorities are to decrease their office paper consumption by 30%.

Establishes a framework to promote efficient co-generation systems.

Establishes that as of 1 January 2017, the use of non-biodegradable and non-compostable plastic packaging for sending addressed or non-addressed press and advertising is prohibited. Prohibits the production, distribution, sale, provision and use of packaging or bags made wholly or partly from oxo-fragmentable plastic (biodegradable but not compostable).

Establishes that as of 1 January 2016, disposable plastic bags available at supermarket counters are prohibited, and from 1 January 2017, “fruit and vegetables” plastic bags are prohibited.

Aims to decrease the domestic material consumption per capita (consumer products, food waste, electronic waste) and increase recycling rates.

By 2030, increase by 30% the ratio of the GDP to domestic material consumption from 2010.

Requires institutional investors to disclose information to beneficiaries on how their investment decision-making process takes social, environmental and governance criteria into consideration (including climate risk), and the means implemented to contribute to the financing of the ecological and energy transition. Requires investors to declare the environmental impact of their investment portfolios, including specific reference to impact on climate change.

Requires that banks and credit providers shall disclose the risks evidenced by the stress-tests that are regularly implemented in their mandatory risk reports.

Requires listed companies to disclose financial risks related to the effects of climate change and measures adopted by the company to reduce them

Simplifies administrative procedures for energy upgrades of communal parts of buildings as well as procedures for building certifications.

Establishes that government support for energy upgrades is maintained and mandates the installation of smart meters (some conditions apply).

Sets minimum energy consumption requirements for public buildings and, where possible, requires them to be energy positive. Establishes that minimum energy requirements applicable to social housing are extended from collective dwellings to individual housing and allows for energy upgrades or integration of renewable energy sources to be mandated through local plans.

By 2030, establish an increase in the carbon tax on fossil fuel, from the 2015 rate of €14.5 to €100 per ton, pending ratification of annual budget.

By 2020, establish an increase in the carbon tax on fossil fuel, from the 2015 rate of €14.5 to €56 per ton in 2020, pending ratification of annual budget.

Increase the share of renewables up to 32% of the energy mix by 2030.

By 2030, reduce France’s reliance on nuclear power from the current 75% (2015) to 50% and cap the total output from nuclear power at 63.2 GW.

By 2050, reduce the share of fossil fuels in energy production by 30% compared to 2012.

By 2050, reduce GHG emissions by 75% by 2050 from 1990, and reduce national energy usage by at least 50%.

By 2030, reduce GHG emissions by 40% from 1990.

Revises the mining code’s art. L.111-13 to expand the ban to other techniques that would lead to a pore pressure higher than lithostatic pressure in the geologic shell, excluding punctual maintenance operations or safety reasons.

Stipulates that fossil fuels importing companies shall make public, yearly from January 1st, 2019, the greenhouse gases emissions unitary intensity over the full life-cycle per unit of energy of imported hydrocarbons.

By 2040, establishes an end to all activities of exploration and exploitation of hydrocarbon fossil fuels on the French territory, including the exclusive economic zone and the continental plateau. The ban includes gas, oil and coal, and stipulates that no further permit will be granted by the government. Permits already attributed can keep exploration and extraction activities ongoing.

Establishes new efficiency labels for buildings exceeding the Reglementation Thermique standard: HPE (Haute Performance Energétique): 10% further reduction and THPE (Très Haute Performance Energétique): 20% further reduction

By 2020, aims at reducing the CO2 emissions of new buildings by 13m-35m tonnes of CO2 from 2013 and reducing the primary energy consumption in new buildings by 150bn kWh from 2013.

Establishes that new residential buildings will be required to have a primary energy consumption lower than 50 kWh/m²/year and creates a minimum energy efficiency requirement for the ‘bioclimatic need’ – “Biomax” of the building, a maximum average primary energy consumption of the building below 50 kWh/m²/year – “Cmax,” and a summer comfort requirement.

By 2030, at least 40% reduction in GHG emissions compared to 1990 levels covering 100% of GHG emissions, to be fulfilled jointly between EU countries.

Establishes business income tax incentives to make clean energy projects, such as solar energy, wind energy and energy from waste, more fiscally attractive for industry. Allows for accelerated capital cost allowances, deductions, and write-offs for certain production systems, expenses, and equipment: for example, eligible equipment may be written-off at between 30 and 50 percent per year on a declining balance basis.

Provides funding for municipal environmental initiatives that improve air, water, and soil, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. GMF funding is available to all Canadian municipal governments and their partners for eligible projects. Endowed with $550 million.

Is party to the Global Methane Initiative (GMI), the only international effort to specifically target methane abatement, recovery, and use by focusing on biogas (which includes agriculture, municipal solid waste, and wastewater), coalmines, and oil and gas systems. The GMI is an international public-private initiative that advances cost effective, near-term methane abatement and recovery projects and the use of methane as a clean energy source.

Has committed significant resources (over $186 billion through to 2027-28) to low-carbon infrastructure.

Identifies electrification as an essential step in all deep GHG mitigation analyses. The electrification of end use applications that are currently using fossil fuels is fundamental, for example, using electricity to power certain cars, trucks, building appliances and heating systems, and energy requirements for some industries.

States that the abatement of non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gases, such as methane and hydrofluorocarbons, is a priority given their high global warming potentials. Additionally, although black carbon is not classified as a greenhouse gas, it has strong global warming effects that must also be addressed.

Proposed to work in partnership with Indigenous Peoples and northern and remote communities to reduce their reliance on diesel.

Aims to develop regulations to phase down the use of hydrofluorocarbons as part of Canada’s commitment to the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol.

By 2018, aims to ensure carbon-pricing systems are implemented throughout Canada by 2018.  With a federal benchmark calling a price starting at $10/tonne in 2018 and a $10/year increase until it reaches $50/tonne in 2022.

Establishes business income tax incentives to make clean energy projects, such as solar energy, wind energy and energy from waste, more fiscally attractive for industry. Allows for accelerated capital cost allowances, deductions, and write-offs for certain production systems, expenses, and equipment: for example, eligible equipment may be written-off at between 30 and 50 percent per year on a declining balance basis.

ENERGY STAR Canada is a voluntary partnership between the Government of Canada and organizations in the public, private and not-for-profit sectors to promote energy efficiency. It certifies products, new homes, buildings, and facilities.

Requirements for new construction of buildings reduces the overall thermal transmittance of roofs, fenestration and doors; reduces losses through thermal bridging in building assemblies; and, reduces the allowable percentage of skylight area. Sets technical requirements for the energy efficiency design and construction of new buildings, and establishes more stringent requirements for energy recovery systems and interior and exterior lighting requirements in buildings.

Provides funding for municipal environmental initiatives that improve air, water, and soil, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. GMF funding is available to all Canadian municipal governments and their partners for eligible projects. Endowed with $550 million.

Proposed to invest in transmission lines between provinces and territories, as well as energy storage and “smart grid” technologies to make better use of renewable energy.

By 2030, aims to phase out traditional coal-fired electricity.

By 2030, aims to increase the share of clean electricity in production from 80% to 90%.

Proposed to develop more energy efficient building codes for new and existing structures and work toward labeling energy use in buildings.

By 2018, aims to ensure carbon-pricing systems are implemented throughout Canada by 2018.  With a federal benchmark calling a price starting at $10/tonne in 2018 and a $10/year increase until it reaches $50/tonne in 2022.

By 2025, aims to reduce methane emissions from the oil and gas sector by 40-50%.

Establishes energy efficiency regulations and labeling guidelines for certain household appliances, air conditioners, furnaces and heaters, boilers, water heaters, lamps and ballasts, lighting fixtures, electronics, and commercial refrigeration.

Sets performance standards for carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired electricity generation units and reporting requirements.

Requires 5% average renewable content in gasoline by 2010 and 2% average renewable content in diesel and heating oil by 2012. Establishes a framework within which the government can regulate biofuels content, including record keeping, reporting, and enforcement.

States that these greenhouse gases are subject to regulation: chlorofluorocarbon, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofuorocarbons, sulphur hexafluoride.

By 2030, achieve an economy-wide target to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 30% below 2005 levels. (Canada First NDC Revised: 11/05/2017)

Aims to promote research and development on energy efficiency technologies.

Aims to contribute to the capacity building and dissemination of an energy savings culture in society.

Aims to promote the development of technical and technological capacities related to sustainable energy use.

Aims to strengthen the systems and government agencies responsible for energy efficiency at federal level, state and municipal level integrating public, private, academic and social institutions.

Aims to strengthen regulation of energy efficiency in appliances and energy consuming equipment manufactured and commercialized in the country.

Aims to design and develop programs and actions that enable the optimal use of energy in processes and activities in the national energy supply chain.

Establishes the National Program for Sustainable Energy Use (known as PRONASE), which sets the strategy and actions for energy efficiency at a national level for all sectors through 2018.

By 2025, achieve 35% electricity generation capacity from clean, non-fossil, energy sources (nuclear, large hydro, CCS, RE).

Establishes the requirements for clean energy certificates, compliance systems, and penalties for non-compliance.

By 2024, generate at least 35% of power with clean technologies.

Launches MÉXICO2, a voluntary exchange that provides carbon credits to companies that develop environmentally friendly projects in the country. These credits can be used to offset costs from the carbon tax. The Mexican Stock Exchange (BVM) operates the program.

Establishes a tax on carbon from fossil fuel use, charging $3.50 per ton of emissions.

Establishes a voluntary market for emissions trading to promote GHG reductions in a cost-effective, verifiable, measurable and reportable manner (and establishes a framework for accounting of GHG emissions).

By 2050, reduce GHG emissions by 50% compared to 2000, subject to the availability of financial resources and technology transfer.

By 2020, reduce GHG emissions 30% below BAU, subject to the availability of financial resources and technology transfer.

Stipulates that costs previously externalized (including health and environmental impacts) are now to be included in evaluation of costs associated with operation and expansion of the Electricity Industry.

Establishes a Smart Grid Program to promote grid modernization to maintain a reliable and secure infrastructure to meet electricity demand.

By 2018, achieve a minimum share of clean energies in power generation of 25%, 30 % by 2021, and 35 % by 2024 under the Secretariat of Energy (CRE).

Regulates the exploration and exploitation of geothermal resources for the use of the thermal energy of the subsoil. (Defines geothermal concessions and regulates prospection and exploration.)

Between 2013 to 2030, reduce emissions intensity per unit of GDP by around 40%.

By 2026, reach net emissions peak, decoupling GHG emissions from economic growth.

By 2030, reduce 25% of its Greenhouse Gases and Short Lived Climate Pollutants emissions below BAU (973 MtCO2eq per year) levels. This commitment implies a reduction of 22% of GHG and a reduction of 51% of Black Carbon. The 25% reduction could increase up to a 40% in a conditional manner, subject to a global agreement addressing important topics including international carbon price, carbon border adjustments, technical cooperation, access to low-cost financial resources and technology transfer, all at a scale commensurate to the challenge of global climate change. Within the same conditions, GHG reductions could increase up to 36%, and Black Carbon reductions to 70% by 2030.

Establishes the Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) as the entity in charge of regulation and surveillance, and establishes the National Center for Energy Control (CENACE) as the operational control of the National Electric System (SEN). The Mexican State retains the functions of planning, regulation, control, transmission and distribution of electricity.

Regulates the regime of the electricity sector to move to a new model based on free competition in the activities of generation and commercialization.

Requirement for energy efficiency standards for a variety of products, commercial and industrial equipment.

Requirements on new fossil fuel-fired power plants to meet national emission standards. Note that this rule is currently being reviewed by the Trump Administration.

The Clean Power Plan required that states submit plans specifically designed to limit GHG emissions from fossil-fueled power plants. The Clean Power Plan is currently under review.

By 2025, 26-28% reductions in GHG emissions compared to 2005 levels. This target is set under the US INDC, however it has since been announced that the US will withdraw from the Paris Agreement. We note that despite this announcement, as at currently, the US still remains in the Paris Agreement.

Preferential financing is given for renewable energy projects which meet local content requirements by the Brazilian National Development Bank.

A 2020 aim for a 5% reduction of emissions and energy use in the industrial sector.

By 2030, achieve 10% reduction in electricity consumption.

Between 2015-2024, expand estimated total investments for transmission capacity by USD$40 billion.

An indicative 2030 target of a 43% reduction of economy wide GHG emissions below 2005 levels.

By 2025, 37% reduction of economy wide GHG emissions below 2005 levels.

A draft national carbon tax bill has been proposed but not yet implemented.

From the end of 2020, it is intended that economy wide GHG emissions will peak, plateau and decline. Under this trajectory, by 2025 and 2030, national emissions will range between 398 and 614 MtCO2-eq.

Funding biomass-fueled heat, and Combined Heat and Power projects in the industrial, commercial and community sectors, promoting the efficient use and deployment of biomass for energy.

The UK currently implements the energy efficiency targets and policies of the EU. Recommendations have been made by the Committee on Climate Change that product efficiency standards and labeling requirements of the EU should at least be mirrored under UK laws or that UK should remain in the EU schemes.

The UK currently implements the EU ETS with an additional floor price. Recommendations have been made by the Committee on Climate Change that the EU ETS should at least be mirrored under UK laws or that UK should remain in the EU ETS.

By 2032, at least 57% economy wide reduction in GHG emissions compared to 1990 levels, based on a 5-year carbon budget.

By 2027, at least 51% economy wide reduction in GHG emissions compared to 1990 levels, based on a 5-year carbon budget.

By 2022, at least 37% economy wide reduction in GHG emissions compared to 1990 levels, based on a 5-year carbon budget.

By 2017, at least 31% economy wide reduction in GHG emissions compared to 1990 levels, based on a 5-year carbon budget.

By 2050, reduce economy wide GHG emissions by at least 80% compared to a 1990 levels.

The Carbon Plan outlines scenarios to meet the UK 5-year carbon budgets up to 2027.

Excise of USD$6 per tonne of coal from domestic and international sources, with funds raised to be invested into clean energy projects. (National Clean Energy Fund and Clean Energy Cess)

Mandatory requirement on designated customers within energy-intensive sectors to meet certain requirements to meet certain energy savings. (Perform Achieve Trade and Energy Conservation Act)

By 2018-2019, aim to save 10% on energy consumption. (National Smart Grid Mission)

By 2030, achieve around 40% cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel based energy resources.

Investment of around USD$2.5billion on electricity grid infrastructure.

By 2030, reduce emissions intensity of GDP by 33-35% below the 2005 level.

By 2020, reduce emissions intensity of GDP by 20-25% below the 2005 level.

Subsidies for emissions reductions for implementation of new technologies. Emission reductions are based on an emissions reduction target set by entities, based on emissions from the most recent three years. Double counting of subsidies with J-credits and JCM is prohibited.

By fiscal year 2030, achieve savings of 50.3 billion liters crude oil equivalent, equivalent to a 35% improvement on energy efficiency. (2015 Long-term Energy Supply and Demand Outlook)

By the 2030 fiscal year,for approximately 20-22% of power generation to come from nuclear power.

By the 2030 fiscal year,a 25% reduction of emissions from energy-originated CO2 below 2013 levels, equivalent to a 24% reduction below 2005 levels. (Global Warming Countermeasure Promotion Act)

The Japanese greenhouse gas emission reduction certification system (J-credit) generates offsetting credits for approved methodologies applied within Japan. It covers sectors including energy, industrial processes, agriculture, waste and forestry.

The Joint Crediting Mechanism (JCM) allows Japanese and foreign firms to invest in emission reduction projects and programs in developing countries to earn offset credits. It covers sectors including electricity production and distribution, transportation, industry and waste management.

By 2050, an 80% economy wide reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, with the base year unclear. (The Plan for Global Warming Countermeasures under the Global Warming Countermeasure Promotion Act)

By fiscal year 2030, a 26% economy wide reduction of greenhouse emissions below 2013 levels, equivalent to a 25.4% reduction below 2005 levels. (The Plan for Global Warming Countermeasures under the Global Warming Countermeasure Promotion Act)

By 2020, coal power plants over 600MW required to achieve 300g of coal equivalent/kWh

By 2020, cap annual primary energy consumption at 4.8 billion tons of standard coal equivalent.

By 2020, 15% reduction in energy consumption per unit of GDP compared to 2015 levels.

By 2030, 80% of the coal fleet to be ultra-low polluting coal-fired power plants.

By 2030, 50% of total power generation to be from non-fossil power generation.

Reduce the consumption of coal and ensure China’s total energy consumption stays below five billion metric tons of standard coal per year.

Planned national emissions trading scheme which covers sectors including power, petrochemicals, chemicals, iron and steel, non-ferrous metals, building production and materials, pulp and paper, and aviation.

By 2050, more than 50% of primary energy consumption to come from non-fossil energy.

Around 2030 or earlier, for economy wide CO2 emissions to peak.

By 2030, 60-65% economy wide reduction of carbon emissions per unit of GDP below 2005 levels.

By 2020, 18% economy wide reduction of carbon emissions per unit of GDP below 2015 levels.

By 2029, reduce peak electricity demand by 12% compared to business as usual.

By 2029, reduce annual electricity demand by 14.3% compared to business as usual.

The South Korean Emissions Trading Scheme covers 525 businesses from 23 sub-sectors including steel, cement, petrochemicals, refinery, power, buildings, waste and aviation.

20% of 2014-2020 EU budget is dedicated to climate mitigation and adaptation.

Proposed emissions reductions targets for member states in non-EU ETS sectors (including transport, buildings, agriculture and waste management).

Proposed update in 2020 to the energy efficiency target that by 2030, there will be 30% savings.

Endorsed 2030 indicative energy savings target of 27% by 2030.

By 2020, achieve energy savings of at least 20%.

Suggested target by 2030 for 15% electricity interconnection between EU countries.

By 2020, target of 10% electricity interconnection.