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If you’d like more information on the We Mean Business coalition’s policy work, please contact Jen Austin

If you’d like more information on making a We Mean Business coalition commitment, please contact Jennifer Gerholdt

Germany

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As a Member State, Germany will contribute to the EU’s goal of an economy-wide 40% reduction of domestic GHGs below 1990 levels by 2030. As part of the EU, it participates in the EU Emission Trading System (EU ETS), currently in its third phase. Supporting the...
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Policies

Policy

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  • Policy

    By 2030, at least 40% reduction in GHG emissions compared to 1990 levels covering 100% of GHG emissions, to be fulfilled jointly between EU countries.

    2030 Climate and Energy Framework

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      Carbon pricing

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      Sustainable Fuels

  • Policy

    Establishes that new residential buildings will be required to have a primary energy consumption lower than 50 kWh/m²/year and creates a minimum energy efficiency requirement for the ‘bioclimatic need’ – “Biomax” of the building, a maximum average primary energy consumption of the building below 50 kWh/m²/year – “Cmax,” and a summer comfort requirement.

    Thermal Regulations

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  • Policy

    By 2020, aims at reducing the CO2 emissions of new buildings by 13m-35m tonnes of CO2 from 2013 and reducing the primary energy consumption in new buildings by 150bn kWh from 2013.

    Thermal Regulations

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  • Policy

    Establishes new efficiency labels for buildings exceeding the Reglementation Thermique standard:

    • HPE (Haute Performance Energétique): 10% further reduction
    • THPE (Très Haute Performance Energétique): 20% further reduction
    Thermal Regulations

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      Science-based targets

  • Policy

    By 2040, establishes an end to all activities of exploration and exploitation of hydrocarbon fossil fuels on the French territory, including the exclusive economic zone and the continental plateau. The ban includes gas, oil and coal, and stipulates that no further permit will be granted by the government. Permits already attributed can keep exploration and extraction activities ongoing.

    Termination of Exploitation and Research of Hydrocarbon Fossil Fuels

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  • Policy

    Stipulates that fossil fuels importing companies shall make public, yearly from January 1st, 2019, the greenhouse gases emissions unitary intensity over the full life-cycle per unit of energy of imported hydrocarbons.

    Termination of Exploitation and Research of Hydrocarbon Fossil Fuels

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      Science-based targets

  • Policy

    Revises the mining code’s art. L.111-13 to expand the ban to other techniques that would lead to a pore pressure higher than lithostatic pressure in the geologic shell, excluding punctual maintenance operations or safety reasons.

    Termination of Exploitation and Research of Hydrocarbon Fossil Fuels

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      Science-based targets

  • Policy

    By 2030, reduce GHG emissions by 40% from 1990.

    Energy Transition Law

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      Carbon pricing

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      Responsible climate policy

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      Science-based targets

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      Sustainable Fuels

  • Policy

    By 2050, reduce GHG emissions by 75% by 2050 from 1990, and reduce national energy usage by at least 50%.

    Energy Transition Law

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      Carbon pricing

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      Sustainable Fuels

  • Policy

    By 2050, reduce the share of fossil fuels in energy production by 30% compared to 2012.

    Energy Transition Law

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      Carbon pricing

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      Sustainable Fuels

  • Policy

    By 2030, reduce France’s reliance on nuclear power from the current 75% (2015) to 50% and cap the total output from nuclear power at 63.2 GW.

    Energy Transition Law

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      Carbon pricing

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      Sustainable Fuels

  • Policy

    Increase the share of renewables up to 32% of the energy mix by 2030.

    Energy Transition Law

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      Carbon pricing

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      Sustainable Fuels

  • Policy

    By 2020, establish an increase in the carbon tax on fossil fuel, from the 2015 rate of €14.5 to €56 per ton in 2020, pending ratification of annual budget.

    Energy Transition Law

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      Carbon pricing

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      Responsible climate policy

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      Sustainable Fuels

  • Policy

    By 2030, establish an increase in the carbon tax on fossil fuel, from the 2015 rate of €14.5 to €100 per ton, pending ratification of annual budget.

    Energy Transition Law

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      Carbon pricing

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      Responsible climate policy

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      Sustainable Fuels

  • Policy

    Simplifies administrative procedures for energy upgrades of communal parts of buildings as well as procedures for building certifications.

    Energy Transition Law

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      Science-based targets

  • Policy

    Establishes a clean transport program, which incentivizes citizens to buy low-emission vehicles by installing approximately 7 million charging stations and dedicated parking places.

    Energy Transition Law

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      Sustainable Fuels

  • Policy

    Establishes a clean transport program, which incentivizes citizens to buy low-emission vehicles by installing approximately 7 million charging stations and dedicated parking places.

    Energy Transition Law

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      Sustainable Fuels

  • Policy

    Requires the State to prioritize electric and low-carbon vehicles in procurement (at least 50% of new procurement).

    Energy Transition Law

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      Sustainable Fuels

  • Policy

    Requires that taxi and rental companies will have to reach a minimum of 10% of low-carbon vehicles in their vehicle fleet.

    Energy Transition Law

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      Sustainable Fuels

  • Policy

    Allows metropolitan areas to reduce traffic speed on all or part of the city routes and introduce temporary traffic bans against polluting vehicles across the city. Creates price reductions for access to public transport in case of traffic ban for certain type of vehicles

    Energy Transition Law

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      Science-based targets

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      Sustainable Fuels

  • Policy

    Requires listed companies to disclose financial risks related to the effects of climate change and measures adopted by the company to reduce them

    Energy Transition Law

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      Science-based targets

  • Policy

    Requires that banks and credit providers shall disclose the risks evidenced by the stress-tests that are regularly implemented in their mandatory risk reports.

    Energy Transition Law

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      Science-based targets

  • Policy

    Requires institutional investors to disclose information to beneficiaries on how their investment decision-making process takes social, environmental and governance criteria into consideration (including climate risk), and the means implemented to contribute to the financing of the ecological and energy transition. Requires investors to declare the environmental impact of their investment portfolios, including specific reference to impact on climate change.

    Energy Transition Law

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      Science-based targets

  • Policy

    By 2030, increase by 30% the ratio of the GDP to domestic material consumption from 2010.

    Energy Transition Law

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      Science-based targets

  • Policy

    Aims to decrease the domestic material consumption per capita (consumer products, food waste, electronic waste) and increase recycling rates.

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      Science-based targets

  • Policy

    Establishes that as of 1 January 2016, disposable plastic bags available at supermarket counters are prohibited, and from 1 January 2017, “fruit and vegetables” plastic bags are prohibited.

    Energy Transition Law

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  • Policy

    Establishes that as of 1 January 2017, the use of non-biodegradable and non-compostable plastic packaging for sending addressed or non-addressed press and advertising is prohibited. Prohibits the production, distribution, sale, provision and use of packaging or bags made wholly or partly from oxo-fragmentable plastic (biodegradable but not compostable).

    Energy Transition Law

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      Science-based targets

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      Sustainable Fuels

  • Policy

    By 2020, state services and local authorities are to decrease their office paper consumption by 30%.

    Energy Transition Law

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      Science-based targets

  • Policy

    Establishes that as of 1 January 2017, at least 25% of paper products, stationery and fiber-based prints acquired by state services and local authorities and their groupings are to be made from recycled paper, with the rest to come from sustainably managed forests.

    Energy Transition Law

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      Carbon pricing

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      Sustainable Fuels

  • Policy

    Establishes that as of 1 January 2020, at least 40% of paper products, stationery and fiber-based prints acquired by state services and local authorities and their groupings are to be made from recycled paper, with the rest to come from sustainably managed forests.

    Energy Transition Law

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      Carbon pricing

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      Reduce SLCPs

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      Responsible climate policy

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      Sustainable Fuels

  • Policy

    Aims at better monitoring of waste as well as countering against chemical waste trafficking and unregulated waste disposal.

    Energy Transition Law

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      Carbon pricing

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      Sustainable Fuels

  • Policy

    Sets a trajectory for the carbon component of domestic consumption tax rates for the 2018-2022 period. The value of the carbon component of the tariffs for these taxes is set at 44.60 euros / tonne of CO2 in 2018, 55 euros in 2019 and 65, 40 euros in 2020, to reach 86.20 euros in 2022

    Finance Law

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      Sustainable Fuels

  • Policy

    Creates a more stringent environmental penalty for (based on the only carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of vehicles): the trigger threshold of the malus is lowered from 127 to 120 grams of CO2/km. The law sets a progressive scale ranging from 50 euros for the least emitting vehicles to 10,500 euros for those emitting 185 g of CO2/km or more.

    Finance Law

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      Sustainable Fuels

  • Policy

    Earmarks EUR 388 million of financial aid for the acquisition of clean vehicles (EUR 266 million) and the withdrawal of greater polluting vehicles (€122 million).

    Finance Law

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      Sustainable Fuels

  • Policy

    Mandates that the government must develop upon a Climate Plan every two years.

    Energy Policy Framework

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  • Policy

    Establishes the transposition of the EU Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings (standards, energy performance certificate, energy efficiency studies before construction begins).

    Energy Policy Framework

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  • Policy

    Establishes a High Council on Energy to manage all aspects of the energy sector (including a White Certificate scheme to encourage energy efficiency).

    Energy Policy Framework

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  • Policy

    Establishes new incentive mechanisms such as tax exemptions, energy labels for buildings, and a White Certificate Program to encourage energy efficiency among firms in the energy sector as envisaged in the 2004 Climate Plan.

    Energy Policy Framework

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  • Policy

    Establishes a ‘low consumption building’ norm to all new buildings starting end 2012 (less than 50kWh/m2/year of primary energy consumption).

    Grenelle I

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  • Policy

    By 2020, reduce energy consumption in old buildings by 38%.

    Grenelle I

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      Science-based targets

  • Policy

    By 2020, reduce fuel consumption passenger/km by 50% and reduce by 50% total fuel consumption in aviation transport. Also by 2020, inaugurate 2,000 km of high-speed rail by 2020

    Grenelle I

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      Sustainable Fuels

  • Policy

    By 2022, increase the share of non-road and non-aviation transport to 25% from 14% in 2009.

    Grenelle I

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      Sustainable Fuels

  • Policy

    Mandates an energy audit to be conducted for large firms every four years (except for ISO 50001 certified companies). The firms concerned are ones that have more than 250 employees or revenues exceeding 50 million euros total assets s exceeding 43 million euros in the last two accounting years (grand enterprises EU status equivalent).

    Link to policy

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      Science-based targets

  • Policy

    By 2020, establishes dual target of reducing France’s energy consumption to 131.4 Mtoe of final energy and 219.9 Mtoe of primary energy (excluding non-energy uses and international bunkers). Targets were established in accordance with Article 3 of Directive 2012/27/EU on energy efficiency (EED).

    National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (NEEP)

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  • Policy

    By 2020, improve energy efficiency by 20% (Directive 2012/27/EU on energy efficiency (EED)).

    National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (NEEP)

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      Carbon pricing

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      Sustainable Fuels

  • Policy

    Creation of the interest-free eco-loan (eco-PTZ) in 2009 aimed at individual owner-occupiers or landlords in order to finance major renovation work, specifically for overall energy performance of the building and upgrading sewage system for energy consumption reductions.

    National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (NEEP)

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  • Policy

    Creation of the interest-free eco-loan (eco-PTZ) in 2009 aimed at individual owner-occupiers or landlords in order to finance major renovation work, specifically for overall energy performance of the building and upgrading sewage system for energy consumption reductions.

    National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (NEEP)

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      Science-based targets

  • Policy

    By 2030, significantly increase the energy efficient renovation of residential and tertiary buildings to reduce energy consumption by 28 % compared to 2010, with interim targets of 8 % for 2018 and 15 % by 2023.

    National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (NEEP) through Multiannual energy programming (PPE)

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  • Policy

    Mandates a CO2 label for passenger cars for all new vehicles on their first sale. Labels display average carbon dioxide emissions in grams per kilometer. Labels list grades from A (less than 100 gms/km) to G (more than 250 gms/km) and specify average emissions in several driving conditions, from aggressive to leisured, and intercity to freeway.

    National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (NEEP) Referencing Decree from 10 May 2006

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  • Policy

    Requires transport providers (passenger or freight transport businesses, removal firms, taxi firms, freight forwarders, travel agents, etc.) to inform their customers of the CO2 emissions of each transport service.

    National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (NEEP) (adopted through Law No 2010-788 of 12 July 2010 and is reiterated in the Transport Code (Article L.1431-3). Decree No 2011-1336 of 24 October 2011)

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      Sustainable Fuels

  • Policy

    Establishes a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community (EU), directive 2003/87/EC.

    National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (NEEP)

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      Carbon pricing

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      Responsible climate policy

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      Sustainable Fuels

  • Policy

    By 2020, achieve 23% of share of energy generated from renewable sources in gross final energy consumption, achieve 33% of heat consumption met by renewable sources, and achieve 27% of electricity demand met by electricity generated from renewable energy sources.

    National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP)

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  • Policy

    By 2020, achieve 10.5% of energy demand in transport sector met by renewable energy sources.

    National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP)

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      Sustainable Fuels

  • Policy

    Requires that all new homes and buildings for sale must undergo an energy performance evaluation (an energy performance diagnostic, or DPE), and receive an energy performance certificate. The certificate indicates both the level of energy consumption and the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission level, on a scale of A to G, with G being least efficient and highest GHG emissions. The diagnostic must be accompanied with recommendations on improving the buildings energy efficiency. The diagnostic and certificates must also be provided for rentals, and is to be provided for all new construction where the building permit was submitted after 1 July 2007. DPE applies to all public buildings, and public display of the certificate is mandatory.

    Energy Performance Diagnosis/Certificate

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      Science-based targets

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    Feed-in-premiums will be granted through 2 pathways either through

    • direct contracting, where eligible technologies will be able to sign a contract for 15 to 20 years with a compelled entity

    Technologies eligible for direct contracting: hydropower under 1 MW, waste incineration, biogas from landfill and waste water treatment plant above 500 kW, geothermal power plants, onshore wind.

    • through competitive tenders, where only the winners will be able to sign a contract for 15 to 20 years.

    Technologies subjected to tendering: small hydropower  (1- 4,5 MW),  biomass, biogas above 500 kW, Solar PV above 500 kWc.

    Support Scheme for Electricity Produced from Renewable Energy Sources Decrees n°2016-682 and n°2016-691

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      Science-based targets

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    By 2030, at least 40% reduction in GHG emissions compared to 1990 levels covering 100% of GHG emissions, to be fulfilled jointly between EU countries.

    (2030 Climate and Energy Framework) (NDC)

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  • Policy

    2013 cap for emissions from fixed installations is set at 2,084,301,856 allowances as part of Phase 3.

    Between 2013-2020, this cap decreases each year by 1.74%, amounting to a reduction of 38,264,246 allowances each year (EU Emissions Cap). Auctioning is the default method for allocating allowances and 300 million allowances set aside in the New Entrants Reserve to fund the deployment of innovative renewable energy technologies and carbon capture and storage through the NER 300 programme (Phase 3).

    In 2021, the pace of annual reductions in allowances increases to 2.2%.(Phase 4).

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  • Policy

    Until 2020, the cap on total aviation allowances was originally set at 210,349,264 per year and has been increased by 116,524 allowances per year from 1 January 2014 onwards to account for Croatia’s full integration into the EU ETS (EU Emissions Trading Scheme – aviation cap).

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  • Policy

    Outlines key policy measures to be implemented by 2020 to in order to reach Germany’s goal of cutting greenhouse gas emissions reduction target. Focuses on energy efficiency, building sector, transport sector, industry, agriculture, and emissions trading reform. The program will lead to a reduction of 62m-78m tonnes CO2 equivalent in 2020 compared with the current projection for 2020. In addition to this a further 3m-4m tonnes can be saved through soft, cross-sectoral measures, bringing about a total reduction of 82m tonnes.

    Action Program on Climate Protection 2020

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    States an aim to save around 10 percent of final energy consumption in transport by 2020 and around 40 percent by 2050 (reference year 2005).

    Action Program on Climate Protection 2020

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  • Policy

    States an aim to significantly increase the market share of electric vehicles on the road to 1 million by 2020 and 6 million by 2030.

    Action Program on Climate Protection 2020

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  • Policy

    Provides guidance to all areas of action in the process to achieve domestic climate targets in line with the Paris Agreement. Areas of action include: energy, buildings, transport, trade and industry, agriculture and forestry. Key goal is to establish long-term targets aligned with national greenhouse gas neutrality by 2050, including sector-specific milestones for 2030. The plan will be fleshed out with programs and measures , with the first program to be adopted in 2018.

    Climate Change Action Plan (Klimaschutzplan) 2050

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    By 2050, 80 to 95% percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, compared to 1990 levels.

    Climate Change Action Plan (Klimaschutzplan) 2050

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    By 2030, at least 55% reduction in greenhouse gases, compared to 1990 levels.

    Climate Change Action Plan (Klimaschutzplan) 2050

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  • Policy

    By 2030, 61-62% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in the energy sector, compared to 1990 levels.

    Climate Change Action Plan (Klimaschutzplan) 2050

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    By 2030, 66-67% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in the buildings sector, compared to 1990 levels.

    Climate Change Action Plan (Klimaschutzplan) 2050

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    By 2030, 40-42% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector, compared to 1990 levels.

    Climate Change Action Plan (Klimaschutzplan) 2050

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    By 2030, 49-51% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in the industry sector, compared to 1990 levels.

    Climate Change Action Plan (Klimaschutzplan) 2050

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    By 2030, 31-34% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in the agriculture sector, compared to 1990 levels.

    Climate Change Action Plan (Klimaschutzplan) 2050

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    By 2020, achieve 7% minimum requirement level of biofuels used in road transport.

    Biofuels Quota Act

    References climate protection act

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    Between 2017 and 2019, companies in the oil industry have to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 6% compared to the total quantity of gasoline fuel fossil diesel fuel and biofuel that they place on the market.

    Federal Immission Control

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    Sets sustainability criteria for the production of biofuels.

    Sustainability Requirements for Biofuels

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    Regulates the exploration, testing, and demonstration of permanent CO2 storage technology. It is the national-level implementing legislation for the EU Directive on the geological storage of CO2.

    Carbon Capture and Storage Act

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    Provides for an annual storage of no more than 1.3m tons of CO2 and a maximum storage capacity of 4m tons of CO2 per year in Germany. Stipulates that permits can only be granted if an application for a CO2 storage facility has been made by 31 December 2016.

    Carbon Capture and Storage Act

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    Aims to increase electricity generation from CHP plants, to support the launch of the fuel cell sector and funding for construction and expansion of heating and cooling systems.

    Combined Heat and Power Act

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    By 2020, increase electricity generation from CHP by 25%.

    Source: https://www.ecolex.org/details/legislation/combined-heat-and-power-act-lex-faoc150768/)

    Combined Heat and Power Act

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    By 2025, increase net electricity generation from combined heat and power plants to 110 terawatt hours by 2020 and to 120 terawatt hours.

    Combined Heat and Power Act

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    Establishes the Energy and Climate Fund. The fund provides finance for energy efficiency, renewable energy, energy storage and grid technology, energetic refurbishment of buildings, national climate action, international climate and environment action, and the development of electric mobility.

    Energy and Climate Fund (EKFG)

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    By 2040, 70% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, compared to 1990 levels.

    Energy Concept 2010

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    Sets out a basic strategic approach for the transition to renewables and energy efficiency for a secure, environmentally compatible and competitive supply of energy. States that renewables should account for the main share of the energy supply.

    Energy Concept 2010

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    By 2050, a 60% share of renewable energy sources in final energy consumption.

    Energy Concept 2010

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    By 2020, 20% reduction in primary energy consumption, compared to 2008 levels.

    Energy Concept 2010

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    By 2050, 50% reduction in primary energy consumption, compared to 2008 levels.

    Energy Concept 2010

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    By 2020, 10% reduction of final energy consumption in the transport sector, compared to 2005 levels.

    Energy Concept 2010

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    By 2050, 50% reduction of final energy consumption in the transport sector, compared to 2005 levels.

    Energy Concept 2010

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    Provides the basis and requirements for energy labeling of products in Germany. It transposes the EU Energy Labeling Directive into national law, introduces new classes of labeling (previously only A-G, now up to A+++), and introduces a requirement that not only energy-consuming equipment, but also energy-related products, which themselves do not consume energy, are marked with the EU energy label.

    Energy Consumption Labeling Act

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    Act aims to enhance competition and secure the supply and sustainability of energy production. Requires electricity labeling according to type of energy source. Calls for consistent and efficient offshore grid expansion and introduces a binding offshore grid development plan.

    Energy Industry Act

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    Creates the legal framework to promote energy transition in the buildings sector. It serves to implement Federal Government decisions on the energy concept and the energy transition and is based on European guidelines (EU Directive on the Energy Performance in Buildings 2010/31/EU).

    Energy Conservation Act

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    Creates the obligation of the nearly zero-energy standard for new buildings. This obligation will apply to all new public buildings from 2019 onwards and to all other new buildings as of 2021.

    Energy Conservation Act

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    Requires (from 2016 onwards) a reduction of approximately 25% in terms of primary energy consumption and around 20% in terms of heat transfer loss (the latter one reflecting the thermal insulation of the building shell) for new buildings.

    Energy Conservation Ordinance

     

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    Requires disclosure of key energy figures in real estate advertisements when selling and renting properties and that an energy performance certificate must be made available to a potential buyer or tenant of a building at the viewing stage. Extends requirement of the existing duty to display energy performance certificates in buildings used by public authorities and frequently visited by the public to smaller buildings.

    Energy Conservation Ordinance

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    Requires the display of energy performance certificates in certain buildings which are frequently visited by the public, but which are not occupied by public authorities.

    Energy Conservation Ordinance

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    Establishes the recording of efficiency classes in energy performance certificates for residential buildings as well as the obligation to provide notification in real estate advertisements when selling and letting property. And establishes an independent system for spot checks of energy performance certificates and reports on the inspection of air conditioning systems.

    Energy Conservation Ordinance

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    Requires the decommissioning of constant temperature boilers installed before 1 January 1985 or which have been in service for more than 30 years (previous qualifying date of 1 January 1978; boilers in certain one and two-family dwellings occupied by the owner continue to be excluded from this regulation).

    Energy Conservation Ordinance

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    Aims to expand grid infrastructure to encourage renewable energy supply. Simplifies the planning of grid expansion projects which involve several federal states or cross national boundaries: power line routes are centrally planned and approved by the Federal Network Agency in a process involving early public participation. Establishes the Federal Network Agency as responsible for the statutory planning approval procedure for grid expansion projects, which means it can define the precise route of the power lines. The transfer of the planning responsibility from state to federal level is intended to streamline the process and avoids the fragmentation of tasks.

    Grid Expansion Acceleration Act

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    Prohibits commercial hydraulic fracturing for the production of shale gas as well as shale oil (unconventional hydraulic fracturing). Limited test drillings (four authorized) will be carried out to provide for experts to prepare yearly reports to the German Bundestag. In 2021, the Parliament will reassess whether the ban of unconventional hydraulic fracturing should continue.

    Prohibition and Minimization of the Risks of Fracking Technology

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    Allows conventional hydraulic fracturing in sandstone for the production of tight gas, a traditional technique used in natural gas fields, to continue despite fracking ban, but under more stringent conditions for permit application:

    • An environmental impact assessment is required.
    • Only non-hazardous or low hazardous fracturing fluids are allowed.
    • In the case of damages due to seismic events, a reversal of evidence is provided: in case of doubt, the companies will have to prove that damage is not caused by hydraulic fracturing activities.

    Prohibition and Minimization of the Risks of Fracking Technology

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    By 2020, 14% increase in the share of renewable energies in final energy consumption for heating and cooling.
    Renewable Energies Heat Act

     

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    Requires that the heat requirement for new buildings (greater than 50 square meters) be covered proportionately with renewable energies. The owner can determine which form of renewable energy is to be used. Establishes a certain minimum proportion of the total heating and / or cooling needs to be generated by renewable energies. The proportion depends on which renewable energies are used:

    • Solar radiation: at least 15 % of the heating and cooling energy requirements of the building must be covered by a solar thermal system
    • Solid or liquid biomass: 50%
    • Geothermal energy: 50%

    Establishes replacement measures.

    Renewable Energies Heat Act

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    Establishes a market incentive program for individual homeowners, businesses, and municipalities, allocating subsidies for the use of renewable energy. Funding is provided for private consumers who decide to have their heating system retrofitted to run on renewables. Funding is provided for the installation of solar thermal installations (with a collector area of up to 40 square meters), biomass-based heating systems (with a nominal heating capacity of up to 100 kW), and heat pumps (with a nominal heating capacity of up to 100 kW). The funding program places a special focus on setting up new installations in existing buildings. In the case of new buildings, funding is only available for certain innovative types of installations.

    Market Incentives Program

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    By 2020, generate 35% of electricity supply from renewable energy resources.

    Renewable Energy Sources Act

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    By 2025, generate 40-45% of electricity supply from renewable energy resources.

    Renewable Energy Sources Act

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    By 2035, generate 55-60% of electricity supply from renewable energy resources.

    Renewable Energy Sources Act

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    By 2050, generate 80% of electricity supply from renewable energy resources.

    Renewable Energy Sources Act

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    Establishes guidelines for funding of renewable energy. Switches mechanism from prices fixed by government to prices set by competitive auctions. Sets specific deployment plans for each type of energy (funding will be auctioned for offshore wind energy, onshore wind energy, photovoltaics, biomass). Exempted: installations ≤ 750 kW (biomass: ≤ 150 kW). Auctions will cover 80% of newbuild.

    Renewable Energy Sources Act

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    By 2020, 2.1% average annual increase in macroeconomic energy productivity from 2008 levels.

    National Energy Efficiency Action Plan

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    By 2020, 20% reduction in primary energy consumption from 2008 levels.

    National Energy Efficiency Action Plan

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    By 2050, 50% reduction in primary energy consumption from 2008 levels.

    National Energy Efficiency Action Plan

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    Establishes quality control and optimization of existing energy consultancy services to support energy efficiency consulting for refurbishment plans of entire buildings, including groups of owners.

    National Energy Efficiency Action Plan

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    Creates tax incentives for energy efficiency refurbishment targeted at improving energy efficiency and renewable heat usage in residential buildings.

    National Energy Efficiency Action Plan

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    Extends funding and scope of CO2 Building Refurbishment Program — now applicable to commercial and communal properties, as well as residential.

    National Energy Efficiency Action Plan

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    Creates pilot phase of energy efficiency tenders, “Step Up!,” (2015-2018). Total funding €300 million through 2018. ‘STEP up’ is designed to encourage companies to identify areas where they can improve their energy efficiency and implement measures that take longer than three years to amortize in terms of electricity costs. Funding is available for any kind of investment that is proven to reduce a company’s electricity consumption, no matter if this means changing standard components or developing tailored systems solutions or whether action is taken on the company’s premises or at their customer’s premises.

    National Energy Efficiency Action Plan & STEP Up

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    Extends energy efficiency program to include two new levels of access to the program (“Starter” program at 10% energy savings, and the “Premium Standard” at 30%). The program supports private sector energy efficiency improvements through soft loans. 

    National Energy Efficiency Action Plan

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    Establishes Energy Efficiency Network Initiative that targets the creation of 500 “Energy Efficiency Networks” by 2020 to provide implementation frameworks and tools for the government’s energy efficiency plan at a local level. 

     

    National Energy Efficiency Action Plan

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    Establishes ‘Top-Runner Initiative’ to push for increased energy efficiency in supply chains and product development through the creation of higher standard at a national level and the granting of EUR 6 million in research support.

    National Energy Efficiency Action Plan

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    Establishes national energy efficiency labeling for old heating systems and requires heaters and boilers to be given an energy efficiency grading during the existing mandatory chimney-sweep visits.

    National Energy Efficiency Action Plan

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    Establishes a tax benefit for manufacturing companies bearing significant cost burdens due to electricity duty. Energy efficiency measures such as implementation of energy management systems and achieving energy efficiency targets are a requirement to benefit from the exemption.

    Tax Benefit (Spitzenausgleich)

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    Provides funding for companies to implement highly efficient cross-cutting technologies. 2016 revision of the program puts an even stronger focus on the industrial sector.

    Investment Grants for the Use of Highly Efficient Cross-Cutting Technologies

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    Funds energy audit for SMEs through the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy. The grant covers 80% of the energy auditing costs, with the maximum amount set at €6,000. For smaller companies that spend less than €10,000 on energy bills, the maximum amount is €1,200.

    Funding Energy Audits for SMEs

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    Establishes Energy Efficiency Fund to assist in a large number of different measures to improve energy efficiency in SMEs and industry, private consumers and municipalities.

    Energy Efficiency Fund

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    By 2020, 18% share of energy generated from renewable energy sources in gross final energy consumption.

    National Renewable Energy Action Plan

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    By 2020, 105.5% of demand met by renewable energy sources.

    National Renewable Energy Action Plan

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    By 2020, 37% of electricity demand met by electricity generated from renewable energy sources.

    National Renewable Energy Action Plan

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    By 2020, 13% of energy demand met by renewable energy sources.

    National Renewable Energy Action Plan

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    Establishes the national framework for the enforcement of product-specific implementing eco-design measures, implementing EU’s Ecodesign Directive (2005/32/EC). Within this Act, eco-design regulations ensure that inefficient products are no longer allowed on the market, and with the energy label, EU countries intend to shift the market towards more energy-efficient products. 

    Energy-Related Products Act/Eco-Design Implementation and 2017 EU Directive Update

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    Aims to reduce energy consumption in the EU through energy labeling. Establishes greater harmonization across the EU for energy labeling. States that the European Commission is establishing a product database accessible via an online portal. This database consists of a public and a non-public part. Public aspect: consumers and retailers can view product data and independent suppliers can perform evaluations to inform consumers. Non-public aspect: accessible only to the market surveillance authorities and the Commission, aimed facilitating efficient market surveillance across the EU. Expected delivery in 2019.

    New Framework Regulation on Energy Labeling

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    By 2020, 14% reduction in national greenhouse gas emissions, compared to 2005 levels, as stated in EU Effort Sharing Decision.

    National Emission Target under EU Effort Sharing

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    Requires display of CO2 emissions and fuel consumption information label on new passenger vehicles, under EU Directive 99/94/EC.

    Passenger Vehicle Energy Consumption Labeling

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    Sets energy performance requirements for new and existing buildings in the instance of major renovation and regulates the issuing and display of energy performance certificates. Specifies that as of January 2016, the primary energy consumption of new-builds will have to be reduced by an additional 25%. Requires decommissioning of oil and gas boilers that provide central heating in apartment buildings that were installed before January 1985 or which have been in service for more than 30 years. Fines for non-compliance have been increased to €50,000.

    Energy Conservation Ordinance

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    Provides financial incentives for companies to implement innovative pilot projects that  improve the energy efficiency of their industrial, commercial or residential customers with digital technologies. Various energy-saving measures are eligible, including: behavioral or usage changes, changed processes and operations, facilities maintenance or investment in equipment replacement. Up to 1 million euros can be distributed per applicant with a funding intensity of 25% up to 50%, half payable on the basis of proven project costs and the other half on the basis of proven saved kWh. Projects that are already (partially) financed by other federal grants are ineligible.

    Pilot Program Einsparzähler

     

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    Provides advantages and privileges for electric vehicles: allocates special parking spaces at charging stations in public areas, lowers or waives parking fees, and exempting them from certain access restrictions. Electric vehicles receive special E-license plates.

    Electric Mobility Act

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    Establishes sustainability criteria for the public procurement of vehicles, also applicable to transport operators charged with public service obligations, implementing EU Directive 2009/33/EC. Requires taking into account energy consumption, CO2 emissions and pollutant emissions over the entire lifetime of vehicles in the purchase decision. To support this effort, the Clean Vehicle Portal has been created to help public procurement as well as private users in buying cleaner and more energy efficient vehicles.

    Promotion of Clean and Energy Efficient Road Transport Vehicles

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    Establishes a toll scheme that varies toll rates according to the pollutants the vehicles emit, as an incentive to deploy less polluting vehicles and support a modal shift of freight traffic to the rail and waterway modes. As of July 2018, HGVs (heavy goods vehicles) will have to pay tolls for the use of all the approximately 40,000 km of federal highways.

    HGV Toll

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    Provides funding for energy-efficient construction and retrofitting of buildings. Funding takes the form of grants or low-interest loans that may be combined with loan-repayment grants. As a rule, financial incentives rise with the level of energy efficiency achieved. Funding is available for residential, municipal and social service buildings, and commercial buildings.

    CO2 Building Modernization Program

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    Provides funding for the modernization of heating and ventilation systems in homes. 165 million euros in funding is available and provided in the form of low-interest loans and grants.

    Energy Efficiency Incentive Program (APEE)

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    Funds specialized contracting consultancy for municipalities and SMEs until through 2018.

    Promoting Energy Performance Contracting (EPC)

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    Low-interest financing programs, made available by KfW, the German government-owned development bank, available for improving the energy efficiency of production processes and equipment.

    KfW Energy Efficiency Programs

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    Provides funding for measures (the installation of highly-efficient heating and hot water circulation pumps, the use of hydraulic balancing and others) that require a small investment and creates incentives for consumers to improve their existing heating systems. Between 2018 and the end of 2020, €470 million will be available each year.

    Program for Funding Heating Optimization via Highly Efficiency Pumps and Hydraulic Balancing

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    Provides funding for companies that are trying out, enhancing, and marketing digital solutions for reducing electricity, gas, heat and cooling consumption by providing these solutions to final consumers. Up to €1 million in funding is available per project.

    Energy-Savings Meter Pilot Program

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    Introduces energy-efficiency networks, an initiative between the Federal government and business associations and organizations designed to encourage companies throughout Germany to form voluntary energy efficiency networks and commit to targets.

    Energy Efficiency Networks Initiative

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    By 2020, set up 500 energy efficiency networks, a joint goal between the Federal Government and business associations and organizations.

    Energy Efficiency Networks Initiative

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    An initiative that focuses its activities on three key parts of the value chain: the production, selling and buying / using of products. The initiative offers value for consumers, dealers, and manufacturers:

    • Hosts a product database to allow consumers to find the most energy-efficient equipment.
    • Helps dealers to advertise the added value of energy-efficient products and to promote sales of top runner products.
    • Provides access to a network where retailers can engage in dialogue on sales activities, and customer information, and can work together on designing workshops for retailers.
    • Provides support for producers who are developing innovative products, for example via the open innovation platform.

    National Top Runner Initiative

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    Aims to encourage investments in highly efficient horizontal technologies, with a current focus on industrial pumps, alongside action to promote the in-house use of waste heat. Program covers investments to replace existing equipment as well as investments in new equipment and targets SMEs and large companies. A maximum of €30,000 is available for individual measures per project, or a maximum of €150,000 for measures to improve entire systems. The latter are eligible for funding if proof is furnished that these measures will increase the system’s energy performance by at least 25% and if an energy conservation plan to this effect is submitted.

    Guidelines for Funding Highly Efficient Horizontal Technologies

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